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Lord Byron's 1st Address to the House of Lords1812-02-27Lord Byron makes his first address as a sitting member of the House of Lords. The house had been considering measures criminalizing any public display of sympathy for the Luddites, Byron strongly condemns the measure.AuthorLetters/DiariesAB

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Letter- Lord Byron's first love1813-01-01"How the deuce did all this occur so early? where could it originate ? I certainly had no sexual ideas for years afterwards; and yet my misery, my love for that girl were so violent, that I sometimes doubt if I have ever been really attached since. Be that as it may, hearing of her marriage several years after was like a thunder-stroke — it nearly choked me—to the horror of my mother and the astonishment and almost incredulity of every body. And it is a phenomenon in my existence (for I was not eight years old) which has puzzled, and will puzzle me to the latest hour of it; and lately, I know not why, the recollection (not the attachment) has recurred as forcibly as ever. I wonder if she can have the least remembrance of it or me?"AuthorLetters/DiariesAB

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War of 1812- US declares war on UK1812-06-181815-03-23Causes of the war include British failure to vacate forts in American territory, instigating Native American peoples to attack, and possibly an American desire to seize all or part of Canada. Britain remains focused on the defeat of Napoleon in France, dedicating little resources to the war with Americahttp://www.r0x0rz.org/upload/shadowalker/School/Ft._Henry_bombardement_1814.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyAB

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Battle of Leipzig1813-10-161813-10-19Napoleon suffers a crippling defeat at Leipzig, Germany, forcing his retreat back to France. Considered a turning point in the war, the Coalition forces follow and invade France, forcing him to abdicate his throne in early 1814. Casualties from the battle are extremely high- as many as a hundred thousand.Culture/Science/SocietyAB

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Luddite riot in Middleton, England1812-04-20Luddites were a group of disgruntled textile workers angry that technological advances (the Industrial Revolution) were making their jobs obsolete. This movement and period of civil unrest would later form the basis for a Charlotte Bronte novel, <em>Shirley.</em> http://www.r0x0rz.org/upload/shadowalker/School/Luddite.jpgOverviewAB

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William Godwin and Percy Bysshe Shelley meet1812-10-04William Godwin and Percy Bysshe Shelley meet for the first time in London. Godwin would be a major influence on Queen Mab, Shelley’s seminal poem about idealism and radicalism which he is arguably most remembered for, and which was published discreetly in 1813OverviewAB

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Percy Bysshe Shelley meets Mary Godwin1812-11-11Percy Bysshe Shelley meets William Godwin’s daughter, Mary, who had been sent to stay with the Baxter family in Scotland. One year later he’d meet her again when she returned to the residence, two years later she would be pregnant with their first child.OverviewAB

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Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes <em>Queen Mab</em>1813Only 150 copies are produced, Shelley never intended for the work to circulate beyond a circle of close friends. But today, it is perhaps his most important and enduring work.OverviewAB

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Lord Byron Publishes <em>The Giaour</em> and <em>The Bride of Abydos</em>1813-01-01Both works, which have an Eastern theme, are well-received and fuel Byron's quickly rising star. His popularity in the London social scene skyrockets, even as various tales of scandal begin to catch up with him.OverviewAB

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Byron publishes <em>Childe Harold Chronicles</em> (Canots I &II)1812-03-01Publication leads to instant critical acclaim, establishing him as an important figure in the literary scene. It also provides the first example of the “Byronic hero,” a type of protagonist frequently emulated since. The fame afforded to him by its publication leads him on a whirlwind of scandalous affairs which takes place over the next two yearsPrintCultureAB

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Sir Walter Scott publishes <em>Rokeby</em>1813-01-11Scott's first poem since <em>The Lady of the Lake,</em> which had broken all sales records for poetry up until that time. Set during the English Civil War, it is a critical success, but does not match his previous commercial success. Later that year, he is offered the position of Britain’s Poet Laureate, but he declines for reasons of artistic integrity. PrintCultureAB

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Jane Austen publishes <em>Pride and Prejudice</em>1813-01-28<em>Pride and Prejudice</em> is published by Jane Austen, although the manuscript was written around 1796. It debuts to at least moderate acclaim- a <a href=http://www.british-fiction.cf.ac.uk/reviews/prid13-7.html>contemporary critical review.</a> PrintCultureAB

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<em>Kinder- und Hausmärchen</em> published1812-12-20Better known colloquially as <em>Grimm's Fairy Tales</em>, the first volume of the classic collection of "childrens tales" by Jacob & Wilhelm Grimm are criticized for their occasionally racy subject matter.http://www.r0x0rz.org/upload/shadowalker/School/1812%20cover.jpgPrintCultureAB

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Friedrich Koenig invents Cylinder Printing Press1812-04-01This high-speed rolling-type press performs much better than previous versions and is sold to the <em>Times</em> in 1814.http://www.victorianweb.org/technology/print/3.jpgPrintCultureAB

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Anna Letitia Barbauld's Letters1784-01-02The specific letter on January 2, 1784, is interesting because Barbauld references Milton and calls her friend a “Goth” because she has not read <em>Cecilia</em>, (Barbauld 115) establishing Barbauld as a well-read writer. The remainder of the selection is Barbauld’s diary, presenting any and all facts that could be asked of Barbauld. AuthorLetters/DiariesACG

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Anna Seward's Letters1785-10-23<a href="http://www.search.revolutionaryplayers.org.uk/engine/resource/default.asp?txtKeywords=seward&lstContext=&lstResourceType=&lstExhibitionType=&chkPurchaseVisible=&txtDateFrom=&txtDateTo=&originator=%2Fengine%2Fsearch%2Fdefault%5Fhndlr%2Easp&page=&records=&direction=&pointer=9&text=0&resource=4">Anna Seward</a> wrote copious letters in her life (1747-1809), like the one to Miss Powys, in which she discusses the shortcomings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. She writes that Rousseau “was not fit to converse with…his species.” Dr. Erasmus Darwin credits Seward with inventing the “epic elegy,” and contributing to romantic poetry. AuthorLetters/DiariesACG

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The Discovery of the Intermaxillary Bone1784-01-01Johann Wolfgang von Goethe discovered the intermaxillary bone at thirty-five. It was known to exist only in animals and it was key to separating apes from humans. Regarding romanticism, it could be seen as the fine line that is drawn between human and animals, human and creature, human and monster. Culture/Science/SocietyACG

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Salsano's Seismograph1785-01-01D. Domemico Salsano, a clock-maker and mechanic of Naples, created the <a href="http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blseismograph3.htm">seismograph</a>. Seismographs are instruments used “for measuring and recording the vibrations of earthquakes.” During an earthquake, “inertia keeps [a] pendulum [set in a frame] steady, producing a graphic record of the duration and intensity of the Earth’s movements.” Culture/Science/SocietyACG

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Letters from Samuel Johnson1784-01-121784-03-25Samuel Johnson’s letters display signs of gothic writing. The letters have a morose and downtrodden tone. At one point, Johnson mentions “trepidation” (Johnson 371) and “terrour,” (376) but then goes on to talk of nature. He easily proves his authorship, and he even speaks of genius when he talks of science and “chymist[s]” (386). OtherLetters/DiariesACG

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Henry Fuseli's Letters and Oil Paintings1785-01-01All of Henry Fuseli’s letters can be found in <em>The Collected English Letters of Henry Fuseli</em>. More interesting to Fuseli’s life however, are his paintings, of which one of them – <em>The Nightmare</em> – graces the cover of our <em>Frankenstein</em> novel. In 1785, Fuseli created another magnificent painting: <a href="http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/romanticism/images/HenryFuseli-The-Mandrake-A-Charm-c1785.jpg"><em>The Mandrake A Charm</em></a>. OtherLetters/DiariesACG

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Samuel Johnson dies1784-12-13<a href="http://www.online-literature.com/samuel-johnson/">Samuel Johnson</a>, born in 1709, died at the age of seventy-four. He was an English “essayist, critic and lexicographer.” Perhaps he is best known for being the author of the Dictionary of the English Language. His body rests in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey in London. OverviewACG

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Thomas Wharton named Poet Laureate1785-01-011790-01-01Preceded by William Whitehead, Thomas Wharton was named Britain’s poet laureate. This was a position he held for fifteen years, until 1790. His poetry of the Romantic era was greatly influenced by earlier poets such as Edmund Spenser and Geoffrey Chaucer. OverviewACG

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<em>The Brave Marine</em>1785-01-01The author of <a href="http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Pages/viewtext.php?s=search&tid=129&route=basicsearch.php&sterms=1785&s=browse"><em>The Brave Marine</em></a> remains anonymous; however, the poem works better this way, as it is a modern day "Go Army" commercial in print form. In the newspaper, this would serve as an advertisement for army recruiters who hoped to strengthen Britain's army against their enemies.Periodical/EphemeralACG

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Alcohol for Sale - London Newspapers1784-10-23In the <em>London Gazette</em>, there is an <a href="http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/12589/pages/2">ad</a> on page two, which states that “By Order of the Honourable the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Customs,” both rum and brandy will be for sale on the 27th of October. Purchasers must arrive by four at Cumberland Wharf to purchase the alcohol. Periodical/EphemeralACG

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A Book of Pictures in Six Volumes - Volume IV1784-01-01<em>The Antiquities of England and Wales</em> contains an index of the images contained within the book. As you read about each image, the author gives a general history, and sometimes there may be more detailed sections if there is a second or third image of the same location.PrimaryMaterialsACG

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A Book of Pictures in Six Volumes - Volume VI1785-12-30<em>The Antiquities of England and Wales</em> contains an index of its images. As you read about each image, the author gives a general history. If there is more than one image, the latter sections provide more detailed accounts of the images, as well as different vantage points of the image. PrimaryMaterialsACG

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First Hot-Air Balloon Takes Off1784-06-01<em>The Gentleman’s Magazine</em> claims better quantity and variety than other books. One of the specific entries in the <a href="http://www.rarenewspapers.com/view/544036?list_url=%2Flist%3Flist_results_format%3Dstandard%26page%3D3%26q%255Bsearch_method%255D%3DExact%2BPhrase%26q%255Btext%255D%3DGentleman%2527s%2BMagazine%26sort%3Ditems.created_at%26sort_direction%3DDESC">magazine</a> discusses an experimental ride on a hot air balloon. This is interesting considering the first hot-air balloon ascent in England was by Vincent Lunardi in 1784. PrintCultureACG

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The Early Stages of <em>The Times</em>1785-01-01 John Walton, an English journalist, began publishing a newspaper known as the <em>Daily Universal Register</em> in London, England in 1785. By 1788, the <em>Daily Universal Register</em> became more commonly known as <em>The Times</em>, which is still in effect today. PrintCultureACG

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<em>Godwin Writes to Joseph Gerrald</em>1794-01-01<a href="http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/godwin/friends/ch5.html ">William Godwin writes to Joseph Gerrald</a> who has been imprisoned -- as many others who have opposed the government -- in January 23, 1794. Godwin proclaims his own disdain of the government and states that men must be free to voice their disagreement of the government to prevent treachery. AuthorLetters/DiariesAG

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<em>A Letter to William Godwin</em>1795-01-20In a <a href="http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/godwin/friends/ch6.html">Letter</a>
letter to Godwin, Thomas Cooper states that Godwin’s sole motive for political writings comes from the vanity of the desire of fame.
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<em>"The Political Locust"</em>1794-01-01 In 1795, Isaac Cruikshank is writing of the destruction of the idea of Britain, through which can be seen through high taxes, military defeat, unlawful arrests, and famine. Just as many other citizens, Cruikshank questions the direction of the politics in Britain. http://lcweb2.loc.gov.libacess.sjlibrary.org/pp/cpbrhtml/cpbrabt.htmlCulture/Science/SocietyAG

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<em>"A Republican Beau"</em> 1795-01-01Because of the brutality of the French Revolution Isaac Cruikshank critiques the French as not valuing a better future, and so he instead presents the notion that they (the French) exchange the belief in God for one of war and execution. http://lcweb2.loc.gov.libacess.sjlibrary.org/pp/cpbrhtml/cpbrabt.htmlCulture/Science/SocietyAG

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<em>Washington's Proclamation Against Rebellion</em>1794-08-11In 1794, the <a href="http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/whiskey/text.html>Whiskey Rebellion</a> occurred in the newly established United States of America: angered by the taxes on Whiskey, western farmers started an insurrection. President Washington offers a proclamation in August 11th against the insurgents to return to their homes, or be met with military force. OtherLetters/DiariesAG

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<em>Letter from a British Officer</em>1795-04-20 Brook Watson was a British officer and merchant who served in the American war for independence. A letter12 written by him in 1795 is relatively ambiguous, but it is likely that he is stating that one does the “right” action if one’s character is pure -- one is loyal to the king. http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/cdm4/remain_viewer.php?DMTHUMB=1&searchletters=1795;0;0;0&ptr=364&CISOSTART=16OtherLetters/DiariesAG

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<em> Robespierre is Guillotined Without Trial </em>1794-07-27Approximately 15,000 were executed in September of 1794 in France following the Revolution, although another 100,000 were suspected of being political threats. The social and political turmoil can be seen by the fact that the leader of the dominant political power who initiated the Reign of Terror (Robespierre) was later guillotined. OverviewAG

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<em>"The Famine" of 1795</em>" 1795-01-011796-01-01The social and political of Great Britain was amplified in 1795 because of <a href="http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=374">The Famine</a>. Not only was the year marked by unlawful arrests of suspected revolutionaries and military failure against the French, but the British people were also starving. OverviewAG

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<em>British Ballad Against the French</em>1794-01-01The Valiant Hero was printed in 1794 and it is a patriotic ballad rallying British men to arms by depicting those who do as courageous men who are rewarded by the love of a woman. This is historically significant because France was a real threat who fought against Britain. http://ballads.bodley.ox.ac.uk/images/30000/26054.gifPeriodical/EphemeralAG

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<em>Christian Ballad</em>1795-01-01Hannah More writes a ballad in 17956 that shows the strong Christian influence in British society that remains regardless of the political and social turmoil. The author reiterates the Christian principles of not stealing, gambling, drinking, nor lying. http://ballads.bodley.ox.ac.uk/images/15000/11772.gifPeriodical/EphemeralAG

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<em>Cape Tiburon is Taken From France</em>1794-12-25 British Troops are stationed in the West Indies creating further conflict with France. Cape Tiburon is taken by Britain on December of 17947 for navigational access, and for the protection of Jamaica. Imperialism still exists, although hostilities become lessened because of the fear of another great war with France. PrimaryMaterialsAG

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<em>British Colony in St. Domingo</em>1795-01-011796-01-01A colony in St. Domingo is described in 1795 as being inhabited by “barbarians” in an environment that is described as “poison”. The British soldiers stationed there suffered of deaths from disease. This excerpt shows how the islands of Americas are viewed as uncivilized and possibly even evil. PrimaryMaterialsAG

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<em>Jay's Treaty of 1794</em>1794-11-191795-06-24John Jay negotiated a treaty with Great Britain in 1794. Known as <a href-"http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/nr/14318.htm">Jay's Treaty</a> to Americans, it allowed for the tensions between the two countries to become resolved -- especially in concerns to trade. British intensions with the treaty was to maintain US neutrality during the war with France. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/90/Jay-treaty.jpg/380px-Jay-treaty.jpgPrintCultureAG

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<em>John Thelwall writes "Rights of Nature"1795-01-011796-01-01John Thelwall voices his disagreement of the British government in <a href="www.archive.org/details/rightsnatureaga00thelgoog"> Rights of Nature</a> in 1795. He writes in a time when Habeas Corpus was eliminated and many are held unlawfully as a result of the fear of a potential British revolution. http://www.archive.org/stream/rightsnatureaga00thelgoog#page/n10/mode/1upPrintCultureAG

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William Blake on Fuseli1806-06-01June 1806 - In a letter to <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Richard_Phillips">Richard Phillips</a>, a prominent publisher of the <em>Monthly Magazine</em>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_blake">William Blake</a> expresses his love for the paintings of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Fuseli">Henry Fuseli</a> and his “indignation” at the idea of many Englishmen that Fuseli is a poor artist because he is “a hundred years beyond the present generation.” He says that “Fuseli’s Count Ugolino is a man of wonder and admiration, of resentment against man and devil…” http://i195.photobucket.com/albums/z114/gargleafg/Ugolino.jpg?t=1252898899AuthorLetters/DiariesAJM

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Dorothy Wordsworth writes to Lady Beaumont1807-02-15February 15, 1807 - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Wordsworth">Dorothy Wordsworth</a>, a letter writer who never wanted to achieve nearly as much fame as her brother <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wordsworth">Wlliam</a>, writes a letter to the wife of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_George_Beaumont,_7th_Baronet">Sir George Beaumont</a>, in which she makes numerous mention of her apparent leisure time. She writes, "<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge">Coleridge</a>, Miss H, my Brother, and I set forward upon a ramble, through Spring Wood..."http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Dorothy-wordsworth.jpgAuthorLetters/DiariesAJM

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Elizabeth Dudley sentenced, released1807-09-211807-10-23August 21, 1807 - Elizabeth Dudley “was indicted for that she feloniously and knowingly, and without lawful excuse, had in her possession and custody, a forged bank note, for the payment of one pound, she knowing it to be forged and counterfeited.” For this offense, Dudley was sentenced to fourteen years in prison. On October 23 of that same year, she was acquitted by the counsel for the prosecution, Mr. Fielding though he “[declined] to offer any evidence.Culture/Science/SocietyAJM

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The Clermont leaves NYC1807-08-17August 17, 1807 - The Clermont, Robert Fulton's first commercial steamboat on the planet, sets off from New York City. It landed in Albany, NY a day later.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Clermont_illustration_-_Robert_Fulton_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_15161.jpg/300px-Clermont_illustration_-_Robert_Fulton_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_15161.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyAJM

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Burney lauds Brulart's <em>Alphonsine</em>1807-06-26June 26, 1807 - <a href="http://www.chawton.org/library/biographies/burney_s.html">Sarah Harriet Burney</a>, the half-sister of the more famous <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances_Burney">Frances Burney</a>, writes in a letter to Charlotte Francis Barrett that she has begun reading <em>Alphonsine</em> (1806), a gothic novel written by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St%C3%A9phanie_F%C3%A9licit%C3%A9_Ducrest_de_St-Albin,_comtesse_de_Genlis">Stephanie-Felicite Brulart</a> in which an insidious count imprisons his wife for twelve years. Burney says the novel “has completely bewitched me."OtherLetters/DiariesAJM

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Burney references Shakespeare1806-06-10June 10, 1806 - Sarah Harriet Burney, in an attempt to relay her disgust with her friend Charlotte Francis, writes in a letter that she has "no objections in life to plucking my old crow with you now." This was a reference to Shakespeare's <em>The Comedy of Errors</em> in which the characters Antipholus and Dromio speak of defeathering a crow.OtherLetters/DiariesAJM

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"Marmion"1806-11-01November, 1806 - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Walter_Scott">Sir Walter Scott</a> begins writing "Marmion," an epic poem about the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Flodden">Battle of Flodden</a> (fought between English and Scottish belligerents). It is considered to be very similar to his earlier poem, "The Lay of the Last Minstrel," but its “rhythm is less irregular.” http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Sir_Walter_Scott_-_Raeburn.jpg/200px-Sir_Walter_Scott_-_Raeburn.jpgOverviewAJM

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Slave Trade Abolished Completely1807-03-25Though the bill was passed in mid-1806, the slave trade in Britain (outgoing and incoming) was entirely abolished on March 25, 1807. It finally ended a 200 year-long history of the British slave trade.OverviewAJM

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"A Loyal Almanack" published1807-01-011807 - “A Loyal Almanack,” written by physician Francis Moore, is published by Luke Hanfard. In it are facts about astronomy (or, perhaps, astrology) as the author notes that he “may tell how things will be and when."http://i195.photobucket.com/albums/z114/gargleafg/Almanach.jpgPeriodical/EphemeralAJM

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"Captain Morris's Celebrated Drinking Song"1806-06-04June 4, 1806 - A ballad entitled "Captin Morris's Celebrated Drinking Song" is published. It's sung to the tune of "Jolly Dick the Lamp Lighter" and details exactly why Captain Morris "[drinks] till morn / and [fills his] glass again."Periodical/Ephemeral AJM

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Slave trade bill passed1806-06-10On June 10, 1806, a bill was passed in Parliament that “prohibited the exportation of slaves from the British colonies after the first of January 1807.” Secretary C.J. Fox, in support of the bill, called the slave trade a “mockery of all human reason…to think it honourable or just in Great Britain, annually to send out ships in order to assist in the purposes of African police.” PrimaryMaterialsAJM

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Napoleon on Russia1807-06-25On June 25, 1807 Napoleon wrote a memo to his troops saying, "we were attacked in our cantonments by the Russian army. The enemy mistook our inactivity. He found, too late, that our repose was that of the lion - he regrets having disturbed it." At that point in time the whole of Europe was "apparently prostrate at the feet of France," as a result of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_wars">Napoleonic Wars</a>.PrimaryMaterialsAJM

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Charlotte Dacre publishes <em>Zofloya</em>1806-05-19May 19, 1806 - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_Dacre">Charlotte Dacre</a> publishes her novel <em>Zofloya</em>, in which a woman murders another younger woman in order to eliminate any sexual rivalry. Its subject matter caused one reviewer to write, “the grossest and most immoral novelists of the present day, are women!”http://i195.photobucket.com/albums/z114/gargleafg/Zofloya1.jpg?t=1252891929PrintCultureAJM

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Elizabeth Strutt publishes <em>Drelincourt And Rodalvi</em>1807-04-07April 7, 1807 - In a review of Elizabeth Strutt's <em>Drelincourt And Rodalvi</em>, one commentator notes that it is barely worth perusal saying that "neither amusement nor instruction can be derived," from the novel, which follows the exploits of an English gentleman travelling around Europe, marrying whomever he pleases.PrintCultureAJM

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S.T. Coleridge sends letter to W. Sotheby1828-01-01Samuel Taylor Coleridge was an influential British writer, who published several poetic works. Like many other writers of the Romantic Period, Coleridge also wrote letters that were later published. Thus, he serves as an example of this new trend. AuthorLetters/DiariesAMJK

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<em>On the Constitution of Church & State, According to the Idea of Each</em>1829-01-01Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s political book <em>On the Constitution of Church & State, According to the Idea of Each</em> is published. During the Romantic Period, Coleridge served as an influential poet. He also developed ideas that, in the future, would come to be of significance for students of literature.AuthorLetters/DiariesAMJK

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<em>Evening and Walking Dresses</em>1828-01-01J.B. Whittaker publishes <em>Evening and Walking Dresses</em> in England. The pictures in this book demonstrate the fashion of the Romantic Period, which includes puffed sleeves and a slim waist for women. This book is important because it serves as a guideline for how to dress properly for the time.Culture/Science/SocietyAMJK

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Ackermann's Repository is a style guide1829-01-01Ackermann’s Repository — its full title is <em>Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions and Politics</em> — goes out of print. This monthly English periodical dedicated several of its pages to fashion, serving as somewhat of a style guide for British women during the Romantic Period.Culture/Science/SocietyAMJK

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Mrs. Arbuthnot is a female, political writer1828-01-01During the Romantic Period it was common for women to be writers. A popular issue to discuss was politics. Female, political writer Mrs. Arbuthnot wrote a journal entry in 1828 on the reforms of the British government. Mrs. Arbuthnot serves as an example of the emerging trend of female writers.OtherLetters/DiariesAMJK

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Charles Brown's letters to Mr. & Mrs. Severn1829-03-13Over the course of a few years, Charles Brown writes several letters to Mr. and Mrs. Severn. One of these letters was written on March 13, 1829. Brown isn’t alone in doing this. Publishing one’s letters (and journal entries) seems to have been popular among writers of the Romantic Period.OtherLetters/DiariesAMJK

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University College, London1828-01-01Two years after it was founded, The University College, London, opened up. That very same year, Noah Webster published the first <em>The American Dictionary of the English Language</em>. Both these have contributed to the education of many English-speaking people, making them more likely to read and understand romantic novels.OverviewAMJK

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Catholic Emancipation Act1829-01-01In Great Britain, the Catholic Emancipation Act is passed. This act makes it possible for Catholics to participate in British politics to a much greater extent. This, obviously, brought with it change — change that was noticeable in novels of the time to some extent.OverviewAMJK

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<em>The Athenaeum</em>1828-01-01This British literary periodical is first published in January of 1828. It’s important because, over the years leading up to its ceasing, it dealt with various topics — including social life, politics, and literature — that were widely discussed in England at the time.Periodical/EphemeralAMJK

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<em>The Ladies’ Museum</em>1829-01-01The first issue of the English periodical <em>The Ladies’ Museum</em> was published in January of 1829. This monthly publication — in which, among other things, biographies of people of significance for the time being were published (hence its importance) — stayed in print until 1832.Periodical/EphemeralAMJK

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Lady Caroline Lamb dies1828-01-25On January 25, Lady Caroline Lamb — former lover of Lord Byron — dies. It was Lord Byron who inspired her to become a writer. She’s important to the Romantic Period for having been a controversial yet influential female writer of that era.PrimaryMaterialsAMJK

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<em>the Keepsake for 1829</em>1829-01-01In <em>the Keepsake for 1829</em> — a book that is required course material for TechnoRomanticism and thus obviously important — well-known, influential writers, such as Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Wordsworth, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, have their writings published.PrimaryMaterialsAMJK

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Book Bindings1828-01-01A man by the name Dante Gabriel Rossetti is born. During his lifetime he will, among other things, become a book binding designer. Rossetti is important because he is considered a highly influential artist in England, especially during the late nineteenth century.PrintCultureAMJK

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Louis Braille invents embossed printing1829-01-01Louis Braille invents embossed printing. This invention makes it possible for people with visual impairment to read books on their own, including books that came out of the Romantic Period.PrintCultureAMJK

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Walter Scott's Finances1808-02-01 Walter Scott writes his publisher asking to “admit of my drawing my proportion of the profits which at present must necessarily go to discharge these burthens [sic].” giving insights into both the publishing methods of the time as well as Walter Scott’s financial burdens.AuthorLetters/DiariesAT

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Dalton revolutionizes chemistry1808-01-01John Dalton Publishes <a href="http://www.archive.org/stream/newsystemofchemi01dalt#page/n1/mode/2up"><em>New System of Chemical Philosophy</em></a>, a revolutionary atomic theory. Dalton’s theories provide new insights into the study of chemistry and establish several paradigms of chemistry that continue to be held today. Culture/Science/SocietyAT

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Beethoven Premiere1808-12-22Beethoven premieres several new pieces at the Theater an der Wein including his fifth and sixth symphonies as well as “Chorfantasie” or Choral Fantasy. The lyrics of the Choral Fantasy, written by Christoph Kuffner include “When love and strength are united, /God’s grace is bestowed unto man.” Examples of the emphasis on emotion and the supernatural common in Romantic literature.Culture/Science/SocietyAT

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Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin are born1809-02-12Two great men, Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln are born. Darwin’s concepts regarding the <em> Origin of Species </em> would continue to influence scientific thought to the present day. Meanwhile, Lincoln’s position as the president would bring to fruition the abolitionist movement which began in the outlaw of slave trade a year before his birth. Culture/Science/SocietyAT

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Jesse Fell fuels the Industrial Revolution1808-02-11A letter of this date shows the works of Jesse Fell, a politician in Pennsylvania. Fell’s disbelief in the conventional wisdom of the incombustibility of the coal in Pennsylvania leads him to discover a way to burn the Anthracite such that it may be used in commercial applications. Anthracite then goes on to be the fuel of choice in the American Industrial RevolutionOtherLetters/DiariesAT

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U.S. Slave trade made illegal1808-01-01Importation of slaves into the United States is made illegal. This movement follows its British counterpart by only nine months. However, while the infamous "triangle" trade of the Atlantic is now illegal, slavery continues in the States.http://www1.american.edu/TED/images4/blockson_slave_trade_sm.jpgOverviewAT

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Edgar Allan Poe is Born1809-01-19Edgar Allan Poe is born in Boston, Massachusetts. His work later in life would establish him as a well recognized member of the American Romantic movement.http://www.online-literature.com/authorpics/poe.jpgOverviewAT

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Walter Scott Critiques Rev. George Crabbe1808-01-01Sir Walter Scott writes of Rev. George Crabbe in the <em>Edinburgh Annual Register</em> of 1808 that while Crabbe’s works are sometimes allied with Satire, “though not strictly falling under that name.” This shows the end of the age of the satire which subsequently led to the age of the novel.
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The <em> Quarterly Review </em> begins publication1809-03-03The first number of the <em> Quarterly Review </em> is published by John Murray II. With the aid of famous contributors including Sir Walter Scott the <em>Review </em> quickly becomes a widely circulated “political-literary journal” establishing careers of many authors including Wordsworth, Shelly, and Austen by publishing early reviews of their works.Periodical/EphemeralAT

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Thomas Paine Dies1809-06-08Thomas Paine, an enlightenment philosopher and the author of <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=DTsPAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false"><em> Common Sense </em> </a> , dies. Paine’s ideas, such as “SOME writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them […] The first is a patron, the last a punisher” influenced the course of the American Revolution and French Revolutions.Periodical/EphemeralAT

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Amphibian-Cardio discovery!1809-09-01The Zoological Lectures by Dr. George Shaw are reviewed in the <em> Antijacobin Review and Magazine </em>. Dr. Shaw’s findings are summarized “The heart in amphibia [sic] has but one ventricle or cavity, instead of two, as in viviparous quadrupeds and birds” This serves as a prime example of scientific curiosity and findings that no doubt inspired works such as Frankenstein.
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Blake and Cumberland Correspondance1808-12-18Admirer and publisher of William Blake, George Cumberland writes to Blake with interest in Blake’s “new method of engraving” as well as purchasing more of Blake’s colored etchings. This epistle shows the necessity of the then accomplished poet to moonlight as both a visual artist as well as an inventor of sorts just to maintain revenue streams.
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Theater prices raise, masses riot1809-09-181809-12-01A new theater at Covent Garden, London opens to hold the Royal Opera House. However, increased ticket prices lead to riots that for almost three months. The theater manager John Kemble at one point tried to quell the rioters by hiring a boxer and his associates to deal with them.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Killingnomurder.jpgPrintCultureAT

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James Boswell1787-01-011789-01-01James Boswell writes <em> The English Experiment, </em> a series of journal entries describing his travels across the European continent. He mentions, among others, Voltaire and Samuel Johnson. http://www.nndb.com/people/256/000085001/boswell-sm.jpgAuthorLetters/DiariesBS

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John Keats's last surviving letter1820-11-30John Keats's last surviving letter is addressed to Charles Brown, his closest friend, whom he met in the summer of 1817. They never met again after Brown left for a solitary holiday to Scotland in May 1820.AuthorLetters/DiariesDB

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Thomas Carlyle's first original article published1821-10-04Thomas Carlyle publishes his first original article: a review of <em>The Metrical Legends of Exalted Characters</em> by Joanna Baillie, a collection of three poems containing, amongst others, stories about William Wallace and Christopher Columbus.http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12933/12933-h/images/ljv1-3-jpgAuthorLetters/DiariesDB

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Invention of the galvanometer1820-00-00The galvanometer is invented, a tool which measures electrical current through a conductor. Its modes of operation were first described by the physician Hans Oersted.Culture/Science/SocietyDB

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John Keats dies1821-02-23John Keats, one of the most important ambassadors of the English Romaticism, dies of tuberculosis in Rome. He studied medicine before he applied himself to poetry. Sometimes this scientific knowledge was reflected in his language, combined with numerous natural images.Culture/Science/SocietyDB

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New method of bank-note engraving1820-04-20Jacob Perkins writes a letter to Joshua B. Bacon, in which he tells him that he is happy that the Bank of England "was unable to print the notes", which he sees as a "fortunate event". Perkins invented a method of bank-note engraving that made counterfeiting very difficult. Later he introduced the first penny postage stamps.http://www.eoearth.org/media/approved/6/62/Perkins.jpgOtherLetters/DiariesDB

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Andrew Jackson is governor of Florida1821-02-16Andrew Jackson, later the 7th president of the United States, serves as territorial governor of Florida. He writes a letter to request that his nephew be made known to the General of the army.OtherLetters/DiariesDB

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Acception of the Spanish Constitution1820-03-09In Spain, there are revolts against the reactionary government, Ferdinand VII, who refuses to accept the Spanish constitution of 1812. Troops get angry over insufficient payments, bad food and poor quarters, which results in rebellions. On March 9, Ferdinand finally accepts the constitution.http://www.fineartprintsondemand.com/artists/goya/king_ferdinand_vii-400.jpgOverviewDB

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Start of Greek War of Liberation1821-03-06The Greek War of Liberation, also called "The Greek Revolution", starts with revolts in the Danubian Principalities.OverviewDB

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Percy Bysshe Shelley writes <em>Adonais</em>1821-04-11Percy Bysshe Shelley hears of John Keats's death and starts writing <em>Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats</em>. <a href=http://www.bartleby.com/41/522.html>View the complete poem</a>http://thebsreport.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/percy_bysshe_shelley.jpgOverviewDB

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Publishing of <em>The Thorn</em>1820-00-00Robert Burns writes "The Thorn", a metrical tale, together with some other authors. It is published by D. Wrighton in BirminghamPeriodical/EphemeralDB

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"Brixton Punishment"1821-01-01W. Cubitt paints the <em>Brixton Punishment</em> an illustration of a treadmill at the Brixton House of Correction. Just a year before, three prisoners had escaped from the prison and the governor had been dismissed. Periodical/EphemeralDB

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King's Theatre closed1820-08-15One day after being unable to enter the King's Theatre, the company learns that the Theatre is without any guide, because Mr. Waters, the manager, had left to Calais. The public is indignant, the performers and retainers of the Theatre are left unpaid and unemployedPrimaryMaterialsDB

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King's Theatre is re-opened1821-03-10After John Ebers has undertaken the management of the King's Theatre and got the license for his first season, the 10th of March is the evening of the first performance after the re-opening. The premier of the opera "La Gazza Ladra" is a great success.http://www.rossinioperafestival.it/fileadmin/user_upload/album/userpics/10004/gazza-11-jpgPrimaryMaterialsDB

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Publishing of <em>Ivanhoe</em> and <em>The Monastery</em>1820-01-01Sir Walter Scott, a very popular british author, publishes <em>Ivanhoe</em> and <em>The Monastery</em>, two romances in three volumes. He is said to be the founder of the genre "Historical fiction", an "expression of romanticism in its probings of human nature and emotions and its romanticizing of the American Past and the American frontier".http://members.fortunecity.com/gillonj//sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/scott1.jpgPrintCultureDB

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<em>Annals of the Parish</em> recommended by Walter Scott1821-06-11In a letter, Walter Scott recommends Joanna Baillie to read <em>The Annals of the Parish</em>, a novel by John Galt, a Scottish author who had written tragedies so far.PrintCultureDB

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Godwin and Wollstoncraft's Memoirs1792-01-01The main point that Godwin makes (In Ch.6 of the Memoirs) is that Burke’s patronizing approach to Mary’s response of his <em>Reflections on the French Revolution</em> pushes Wollstoncraft into a defense mode for one half of the species. Godwin also suggests that Wollstoncraft's<a href="http://remnanttrust.ipfw.edu/assets/images/docs/women/rights-women/rights-women.jpg"> work</a> of literature is probably the most substantial contribution of any doctrine for the advancement of Wollstoncraft’s sex that could ever be written by any author—female or male. AuthorLetters/DiariesDG

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Percy Bysshe Shelley is Born1792-08-04The Famous Poet and Mary Shelley’s Husband. Percy<a href= http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shelley/percy_bysshe/portrait.jpg> Shelley’s</a> life is a tragic dilemma. Shelley was born in Horsham, Sussex in August 4, 1792. Shelley seemed to have been misunderstood and introverted from birth. He was tormented and brutalized by the Zion school system. It is interesting that he met William Godwin and felt deep admiration for his causes and his radical philosophies. Shelley had lots of tragedy, lots of death to counterpart his life. Culture/Science/SocietyDG

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Elisabeth Vigree Le Brun 1793-01-01 Elisabeth Vigree Le Brun the female French painter and royalist who fled France during the revolution and lived an adventurous life through Europe. In 1793 she painted a couple of<a href="http://hal.ucr.edu/~cathy/year/1793por.html"> countesses</a>. http://www.batguano.com/vlbspt.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyDG

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<em>The Lady’s Magazine</em>1792-04-01In 1792 fashion was marketed to young girls with Princess Sophia as the iconic classic lady. Her<a href="http://hal.ucr.edu/~cathy/lm/LM1792.html"> portrait </a> was placed in July 1792 issue of The Lady’s Magazine, or Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex, Appropriated Solely to Their Use and Amusement, 1792. Culture/Science/SocietyDG

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Denmark is the 1st nation to abolish the Slave Trade.1792-01-01The act to abolish slave trade is introduced in Denmark in 1792. St. Domingue abolishes the slave trade and slavery in 1793. Great Britain is deeply influenced by this event. New thinking emerges.OverviewDG

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Napoleon takes the Toulan1793-01-01Napoleon was made general after the siege of Toulon. Toulon had so far as the war was concerned remained anti-war till the siege.http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/napoleon/images/big/NAPB06391.jpgOverviewDG

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Wollstoncraft's Outrage1792-01-01From<em>A Vindication of the Rights of Man</em>Mary Wollstoncraft addresses Edmund Burke's <em>Reflections on the French Revolution</em>The Piece has a tone of outrage and urgency. The advertisement is an introduction to what inspired her masterpiece<em>A Vindication of the Rights of Woman</em>.Periodical/EphemeralDG

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To the Public 1793-01-28<em>The True Briton Newspaper</em>
The publication reports a message to the people of Britain and claims to be in a time of urgency. This is at the beginning of the war with France. The piece is a call to support the public principles taught and recognized by the nation. The article is also defending its credibility as a viable source.

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<em>A Vindication on the Rights of Woman</em>1792-01-01In this text Wollstoncraft begins to develop the idea that women should have access to education. It ties into abolition because she suggests that woman are thought of as possessions in the same category as slaves. This is the start of the first wave of the feminist movement.PrimaryMaterialsDG

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<em>The Inquiry Concerning Political Justice</em> 1793-01-01In this Preface Godwin describes the need for the author to create a piece of work that can add to the individual in such a way to strengthen good habits. An essential part of the piece frequently insists that <em>Political Justice</em> is an unusual piece with an unusual outlook of the common principles known to the society at large during this time and place. The author refers to the idea of this work being of the author meaning of the individual. http://phoenix.liunet.edu/~uroy/eco54/images/godwin_william.jpgPrimaryMaterialsDG

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Oracle1792-01-01At the beginning of 1792 there were fourteen daily newspapers that had four pages each. Four columns to a page. <em>The Times</em>, <em>Gazetteer</em>, <em> The London Daily Press</em>, and <em>The Oracle</em> among the fourteen.PrintCultureDG

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Walter Scott publishes <em>Lady of the Lake</em>1810-01-01Author/Poet Walter Scott published his poem Lady of the Lake in 1810, wishing to “depend less on local colour and spectacular action and to attain greater psychological depth in his characterization”. Upon finishing the poem Scott feared that the romantic hero of his poem, Malcolm Graeme, would come off as “a perfect automaton,” or monotonous robot. This fear was realized in his letter to Lady Abercom on March 14th, 1810.AuthorLetters/DiariesFB

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Chopin is born1810-03-01Renowned composer Frédéric François Chopin was born in 1810 in the village of Zelazowa Wola in the Duchy of Warsaw. Most famous pieces were arguably “Nocturne in E flat major, op. 9 no. 2” and “Fantaisie Impromptu in C sharp minor, Opus Posthumous 66.” Culture/Science/SocietyFB

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Heinrich von Kleist passes away1811-11-21On November 21, 1811 Heinrich von Kleist, German poet and novelist, passes away. Known for straying away form the Romantic Era norms of nature, innocence and irony Kleist preferred to focus his time illustrating moments of crisis and doubt. Wrote comedies and tragedies.Culture/Science/SocietyFB

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Newgate Jail Engraving1810-01-01A very interesting illustration of a jail in Newgate is painted in 1810, entitled Newgate Jail engraving. This painting illustrates how jails looked at the time and also it’s a fine representation on architecture in the early 1800s.http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Libraries/imagelibrary/267-3419medium.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyFB

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Fashion Trends1811-01-01A nice look at what people in the early 1800s might have been wearing! For more examples check out http://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/laha/laha.htmlhttp://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/images/i-laha/ja15a.jpegCulture/Science/SocietyFB

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Luddite Protesters Attack!1811-01-01According to BBC’s interactive history timeline, in 1811, “Luddite protesters attacked industrial machinery in protest against unemployment.” The unemployment rate was extremely high and the textile workers of the time, also known as “Luddites,” sabotaged machinery in the “woolen, cotton and hosiery industries” located in Nottinghamshire, Lancaster and Yorkshire.Culture/Science/SocietyFB

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Jane Austen Publishes <em>Sense and Sensibility</em>1811-01-01Written under the pseudonym "A Lady," it was Jane Austen's first published novel! Published by the "Thomas Egerton of the Military Library Publishing House" in London.OverviewFB

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<em>The Chiswick Press</em> is founded1811-01-01In 1811 The Chiswick Press was founded by Charles Whittingham I.  Becoming a very influential in the English printings of the time, most notably it published some of the early designs by William Morris.PrintCultureFB

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<em>The Classical Journal</em> is published in London1810-03-01The Classical Journal was published in London by A.J. Valpay. There were 40 volumes issued starting in March of 1810 and ending in December of 1829. The Classical Journal was a renowned philology periodical.PrintCultureFB

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James Storer publishes a book on Cowper1810-01-01<em>Cowper, illustrated by a series of views, in, or near, the park of Weston-Underwood, Bucks.</em> Accompanied with copious descriptions, and a brief sketch of the poets life. Published in 1810 Storer’s book illuminates wonderfully the surroundings that contributed to Cowper’s accomplishments as a poet through his descriptions and detailed illustrations.PrintCultureFB

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William Jacob's collection on letters1810-01-01A collection on letters were written in the years of 1809-1810 by William Jacob about his travels in the South of Spain. These letters were written to his friends and family and illustrate a knowledge of the times relating to political subjects, interesting events and daily passing. PrintCultureFB

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Charles Bell publishes <em>New Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain</em>1811-01-01New Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain describes Bell's experiments with animals, and how he was the first person to distinguish between sensory and motor nerves. Considered by many as the founding stone of clinical neurology.PrintCulture/ScienceFB

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First Sewing Machine1830-07-17Badfbelemy Thimonnier of France is issued a patent for the first sewing machine. While working as a tailor Thimonnier discovers that by using a running stitch he can complete his projects faster. He takes this method and creates a machine he calls the Couseuse that becomes the first sewing machineCulture/Science/SocietyJA

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<em>Principles of Geology </em>1830-01-01Charles Lyell published the first of three volumes of a book called the Principles of Geology. This was one of the first attempts to try and explain different aspects of the Earth and how it changed. This books was a major influence on Darwin who was given this book by a friendCulture/Science/SocietyJA

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Slave Revolt1831-01-01Samuel Sharpe led a massive slave rebellion in Jamaica that involved over 20,000 slaves and took British troops months to quash. This rebellion brought the issue of slavery back into the public eye and opened the door for campaigns to abolish slavery. Culture/Science/SocietyJA

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French Foreign Legion Founded1831-01-10The French Foreign Legion was founded by Louis Philippe the King of France and has inherited the traditions of troops dating back to the middle agesCulture/Science/SocietyJA

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John Martin1831-01-01John Martin was a famous painter who painted various works including a collection called illustrations of bible stories which he began painting for this collection in 1831Culture/Science/SocietyJA

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James Northcote1831-01-01James Northcote a famous British painter died in 1831. He painted both historical pieces and portraits. His first great work was Young Princes murdered in the TowerCulture/Science/SocietyJA

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Dorothy Wordsworth1831-03-07Dorothy Wordsworth (sister to the poet William Wordsworth) wrote a letter to Mrs. Coleridge asking if Mrs. Coleridge paid her twice by mistake. This letter shows the difference in communication between the Romantic Period and now. This question would have taken weeks if not months to be answered. OtherLetters/DiariesJA

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The Death of King George IV1830-01-01King George IV dies and his brother William IV takes the throne. While King George’s reign was dominated by over spending and vanity William has served in the Royal Navy and was known as the “sailor king.” William’s reign however was tainted by his involvement in the “reform crisisOverview JA

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Riots1831-01-01Riots break out after the Whig Party introduces a bill for major parliament reform. Many small towns were affected by the violent riots including: Bristol, Nottingham, and Derby after The House of Lords rejected the bill. During the riots the council house in Bristol was burnt to the ground and Nottingham castle was attacked. Overview JA

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<em>Comforts of Marriage</em>1830-01-01A ballad called Comforts of Marriage was published by John Pitts. The unknown author gives advice about marriage in a comical way. This shows the social expectations of the time including the expectations of both man and wifePeriodical/EphemeralJA

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<em>Curtis’s Botantical Magazine</em>1831-01-01A popular magaize of the time was Samuel Curtis’ flower magazine. The discriptions of all the plans were done by William Jackson Hooker who wa a Botany Professior at the Univerity of Glasgow in ScotlandPeriodical/EphemeralJA

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Ballad1831-01-01Much of the arts were obsessed with marriage and what the duties of married people are. In 1831 a Ballad was published by W. Wright that gave women a study guide of how to make your husband a good husband. It opened: “Attend ye married women while I tell to you a plan.”Periodical/EphemeralJA

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<em> Lady’s Magazine Monthly</em>1830-01-01Lady’s Magazine Monthly rand from 1770-1837 and touched on everything from fashion to politics. It was one of the few magazine out there women during this time that didn’t just have to do with house work. Periodical/Ephemeral JA

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William Wordsworth1830-10-19William Wordsworth was a famous poet but he also wrote many letters. In one such letter Wordsworth is discussing a new edition of Webster’. This is significant to the Romantic Time period because it gives a glimpse into what authors were doing in their spare time and thus a glimpse into everyday life. PrimaryMaterialsJA

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Tomas Addison1830-01-01A book called Observations of Disorders with Females Connected with Uterine Irritation by Tomas Addison. Tomas Addison was did make many medical advances. He is best known for his part in discovering the disease that bears his name: Addison’s Disease. PrimaryMaterials JA

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HMS Beagle1831-12-27Charles Darwin begins his journey on the HMS Beagle it was the ships second voyage. Charles Darwin embarked on a five year journey and later went on to write many books about evolution including The Origin of Species. PrimaryMaterials JA

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Thomas Davison1830-01-01Thomas Davison was a famous printer. He published Monasticon Anglicanum by Sir William Dugdale in eight folio volumes that ran from 1817-1830. Davison made important improvements in the manufacturing of printing ink and it was said that few competitors could match his excellent work. PrintCultureJA

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William Roscoe1831-01-01Poet William Roscoe dies. He was also a lawyer and a member of parliament who fought to abolish slavery. He wrote many children’s classics including The Butterfly's Ball and the Grasshopper's Feast. PrintCultureJA

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Railways1830-09-15In 1829 a race was held to observe different versions of the steam engine but it was not until 1830 when the Liverpool and manchester Railway was opened. the opening ceremony was attended by many famous figures including the Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington. JA

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Mary Wollstonecraft1796-04-151797-03-29This letter between feminists <a href=http://www.rc.umd.edu/editions/robinson/mrwolletfrst.htm>Mary Wollstonecraft</a> and Mary Robinson showed that both women wrote about and strongly supported woman's capacity for reason and philosophy.AuthorLetters/DiariesJB

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Robert Southey Letter 2111797-04-01Robert Southey’s Letter 211 to John Prior Estlin in April 1797 spoke of Estiln’s book The Nature and Causes of Atheism. Southey explains that “existence of a future state depends upon the benevolence of God & those arguments attack that basis.” AuthorLetters/DiariesJB

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<em>Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur</em>1797-01-01In 1797, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling’s <em>Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur</em> was published.http://libknwlg.lib.sophia.ac.jp/mcenter/special/tenji/image/P1010004image.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyJB

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Robert Southey Letter 1941797-01-01Robert Southey’s Letter 194 to the Editor of the Monthly Magazine in January 1797 speaks of getting a translation for the Poems of Hywel. Southey suggests that “perhaps a translation of some of these pieces might be acceptable to your general readers.”OtherLetters/DiariesJB

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Spithead mutiny1797-05-01Naval rebellions against the Royal Navy occurred at Spithead in April 1797. Many feared that this could lead to a “French-style revolution.” The Spithead mutiny crew luckily found themselves royally pardoned. OverviewJB

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London Debates1796-01-01“Would it not be likely to prevent Conjugal Infidelity, and abolish quarrels between Man and Wife, if Married Persons had the Privilege of Divorcement, as soon as they would declare upon oath, that they were unhappy, and heartily tired of each other?” During this time period, many men began to wonder whether it was time to marry because the likeliness of divorce was on the rise.Overview JB

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<em>Tawny Rachel or The Fortune Teller; With Some Account of Dreams, Omens and Conjurers</em>1796-01-01S. Hazard’s <em>Tawny Rachel or The Fortune Teller; With Some Account of Dreams, Omens and Conjurers</em> was a chapbook published in London 1796http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Libraries/imagelibrary/18-64medium.jpgPeriodical/EphemeralJB

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<em>Mutiny at Portsmouth</em>1797-01-01The poem <em>Mutiny at Portsmouth</em>, published by The Courier in 1797, was about the Spithead mutiny and exposed the fact that some of their demands were met.“Success to the Seventeen united bright Stars, Let their praise echo round ev'ry shore. And the 15th of April will ne'er be forgot, Till Britain and Freedom're no more.” Periodical/EphemeralJB

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The Maroons1796-01-01In the beginning of June 1796, a ship called the Dover sailed from Jamaica for Halifax in North America. It was ordered by “his majesty” to purchase Nova Scotia, Lower Canada, or where else “his majesty” should please to appoint as future establishment for the Maroon’s as free people. PrimaryMaterialsJB

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Toussaint L’ouverture1797-01-01Toussaint L’ouverture, was a slave to Monsieur Noe at the commencement of the revolt in 1791, but was an active part in the rebellion of 1797 with a black army of 18,000. This lead to peace between England and France, and lead to the mulattoes of St. Domingo no longer being enemies.PrimaryMaterialsJB

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Senefelder's Lithography1796-01-01In 1796 Senefelder began to experiment on this new stone printing method, which took four years to perfect, called the Lithography. It was the first fundamentally new print technology since the relief print method of the fifteenth century.PrintCultureJB

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<em>History of British Land Birds</em>1797-01-01Thomas Bewick designs focused on birds and other natural objects from life. Thomas Bewick’s “brought these works alive with his detailed pictures in his published work <em>History of British Land Birds</em> (1797) which had some of the greatest bird illustrations of its time.http://www.library.unt.edu/rarebooks/exhibits/woodengr/images/birds.jpgPrintCultureJB

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<em> William Godwin leaves his post as minister</em>1781-01-01<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3921824302/">William Godwin</a> leaves his post as minister after reading books by French philosophers--Rousseau, Hélvetius, and d'Holbach--that<a href="view-source:http://www.stowmarket-history.co.uk/william_godwin.htm"> Frederic Norman</a>, a member of the congregation, gave him; and, Godwin then becomes a Deist.AuthorLetters/DiariesJEC

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<em>Marquis de Sade prision letters.</em>1780-12-141780-12-14Imprisoned, <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3922334660/">Marquis de Sade</a> writes home to his wife. Given the notorious legacy of his common memory, <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=vnSm3-_JxqcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=marquis+de+sade+letters#v=onepage&q=1780&f=false">the letter </a> is surprisingly tender and affectionate. AuthorLetters/DiariesJEC

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<em>Period Clothing</em>1780-01-011781-01-01Period clothing from 1780-81 witnessed the rise of the <a href="http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/eudr/ho_C.I.39.13.211.htm">corset</a>(or "stay" as they were known then), and the <a href="http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/eudr/ho_2003.45a-c.htm"> three-piece men's suit</a>;also, we see a diminished use of extreme<a href="http://dept.kent.edu/museum/costume/bonc/3timesearch/tseighteenth/1700-1799.html"><em>Panniers</em></a> in dress<a href="http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/orie/ho_1976.146a,b_1970.87.htm"> styles</a>.Culture/Science/SocietyJEC

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<em> Idomeneo, rè di Creta</em>1780-01-011781-01-01Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart travels to Munich and works on <a href="http://www.mozartproject.org/compositions/k_366__.html"><em>Idomeneo, rè di Creta</em></a>, or, <em>Idomeneus, King of Crete</em>, an opera which is said to be a major turning point in his musical career and one in which his musical genius is confirmed. To listen, click <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvZGF0JpSpU"><b>HERE</b></a>.Culture/Science/SocietyJEC

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<em> Inchbald and the Gordon Riots</em>1780-06-09Elizabeth<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3922701340/"> Inchbald</a> writes, in her<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3921917107/"> diary</a>, about the anti-Catholic<a href="http://www.bl.uk/learning/artimages/maphist/war/gordonriots/gordonriots.html"> Gordon Riots</a>, which killed 700 people in London. OtherLetters/DiariesJEC

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<em> Elizabeth Inchbald finishes "Polygamy"</em>1781-01-13Elizabeth<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3922701340/"> Inchbald</a> writes in her<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3922730800/">diary</a> that she has sent a manuscript of "Polygamy" to Thomas Harris; it is a sign of things to come for Inchbald--of her success as a writer. http://www.wired.com/images/article/full/2008/05/jenner_400px.jpgOtherLetters/DiariesJEC

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<em>William Godwin, the minister</em>1780-01-01<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3921824302/">William Godwin</a> finds himself at Stowmarket in Suffolk, England, where he begins a brief stay as minister of <a href="http://www.stowmarket-history.co.uk/william_godwin.htm">Stowmarket Independent Church</a>OverviewJEC

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<em> The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War</em>1780-01-011784-01-01A dispute between Holland and British commercial interests leads to the<a href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25010/Anglo-Dutch-Wars">fourth Anglo-Dutch war</a>. The British did not appreciate the Dutch trading with the American Colonies--revolting at that time--and the outbreak of war lasted for four years.OverviewJEC

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<em> The London Magazine 1781</em>1781-01-01The London Magazine gives a respectful tribute to <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3921041943/">Prince William Henry</a>The prince, who was being praised for entering the Royal Navy at a young age, serves as an interesting example of royal affection for the proprietors of <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=ilUDAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=g s_v2_summary_r&cad=0#v=thumbnail&q=&f=false">the paper.</a>Periodical/EphemeralJEC

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<em>The London Magazine 1780</em>1780-01-01The <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=91QDAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA241&dq=The+London+Magazine+1780#v=onepage&q=The%20London%20Magazine%201780&f=false"><em>London Magazine</em></a> publishes a piece entitled the "Strictures on Vanity." In it, the author proposes, among other things, that the then present age--that is, the British society of 1780--will be remembered for its neutrality, vanity, and trifles.Periodical/EphemeralJEC

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<em>William Gilpin's Picturesque England</em>1781-01-01William Gilpin travels around the British and Welsh countryside, making his observation chiefly in the realms of the picturesque. Within the text are included, several <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3921041773/">landscape plates.</a>PrimaryMaterialsJEC

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<em>Capitol Crimes</em>1780-01-011781-01-01Because of a few<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3922488254/">royal acts</a> passed by George I in 1718, certain <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/42507960@N02/3921706077/">crimes<a/> warranted, and obligated, the magistrates to impose a sentence of death upon the guilty. Some of the crimes--rape, murder, and treason--seem normal, even by today's standards; however, other crimes--destroying a fish pond, cattle maiming, and burning corn--seem a bit much for the gallows.PrimaryMaterialsJEC

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<em> "To the Royal Academy of Farting" </em>1781-01-01Benjamin Franklin writes<a href="http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=470"> <em>“To the Royal Academy of Farting” </em> </a>in
response to a perceived waste of time and effort on the part of the scientific community—specifically the Royal Academy in Brussels to
whom he was writing—in solving problems of impracticality. The essay describes the noble scientific aim of making flatulence less odious.
Franklin, a printer himself, is concerned with which types of information are fit for print.
PrintCultureJEC

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<em> Stereotype Printing</em>1780-01-01Alexander Tilloch conceives, independently, a method of <a href="http://www.oldandsold.com/articles09/stereotype-8.shtml">stereotype printing></a>. He later receives a patent in 1784.PrintCultureJEC

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Sir Walter Scott Letters of 1828 to G. Huntly Gordon
1828-01-01Sir Walter Scott writes how the Religious Discourses were written for G. Huntly personal use. he then stresses that they were never intended for publication and that most people wouldn't know how to react to the Religious Discourses.http://www.nationalgalleries.org/media_collection/6/PG%201366.jpgAuthorLetters/DiariesJF

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Sir Walter Scott: To Lockhart, Sussex Place, London June [1829]1829-01-01In this letter, Sir Walter Scott expresses to Lockhart his financial poverty and his publication complication. Walter Scott expresses how he wished to work out a deal with Mr. Murray which is a holder of Scotts' copy rightsAuthorLetters/DiariesJF

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New White Cotton evening dress1829-01-01This dress has a white cotton gauze with imbecile sleeves and whitework embroidery at the hem. At this period of time, fashionable women's clothing styles were based on the Empire silhouette .http://dept.kent.edu/museum/costume/bonc/3timesearch/tsnineteenth/1800-1829/1983.1.43F.jpgCulture/Science/Society JF

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Evening and Walking Dress1828by 1828, the Georgian period fashion had changed. Evening and walking dress fashion had the transition from the flowing Classical style to tightly corseted waists, full sleeves gathered to a fitting cuff, and fuller skirts.http://content.lib.washington.edu/costumehistweb/images/plate2.jpgCulture/Science/Society JF

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The letters of King George IV: Letter 1492. the Duke of Montrose to the king1828-02-07This letter expressed the gratitude of King George as he is given a letter disclosing permission into he kings household. This was very important because access to enter the kings household was considered a great honor.OtherLetters/DiariesJF

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The Letters of King George IV: letter 1553: the duke of wellington to the king1829-01-18This was an informal letter to the king that the duke of northumerland has accepted the office of lord lieutenant of Ireland. At the end of this letter it expresses that there will be a signing for to make this agreement official in the near future.OtherLetters/DiariesJF

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Parliament grants Catholic emancipation 1829-04-13In the mid 1828, parliament had repealed the Test and Corporation Acts which had banned Catholics from holding government and public offices from attending universities. The Catholic Relief Act of 1829 went further, granting full emancipation to Irish and British Catholics.OverviewJF

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The Spectator Magazine1828-06-06This was a British magazine which was first published on July 6, 1828. Joseph Hume and others raised money. to start The Spectator as an organ of “educated radicalismOverviewJF

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The Christian Observer1828-01-01
The Christian observer had 77 volumes. it was an Anglican evangelical periodical and was foundered by a writer named William Hey. William Hey created this in response to the dissenters "leeds Mercury
http://dept.kent.edu/museum/costume/bonc/3timesearch/tsnineteenth/1800-1829/1983.1.43F.jpgPeriodical/EphemeralJF

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Methodist magazine1829-01-01The Methodist magazine had 33 volumes. This magazine was published up until 1828-9. The magazines’ main focus was on literature, religion and social progress. It was written by the Episcopal Church and had the most recognition in London.Periodical/EphemeralJF

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Journal on Evaporation1828-09-08On September 8th, 1828 J.L. Knapp records how fast water evaporates from different objects such as a glass and a wet towel. These experiments are to record time and measurement. PrimaryMaterialsJF

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Postscript, June 15th 1829-06-15This is a journal entry writer by James Burnes. On June 15th 1829, Burnes records in his journal that Cutch needed to assemble a large body of troops in order to maintain the treaty agreement between the British and Cutch governments in 1822PrimaryMaterialsJF

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Zillah by Hotatio Smith was published1828-01-01Zillah was published in late 1828. Hotatio Zillah was able to take obscure images and pictures as he saw life and relate it to the common everyday world as it really was.PrintCultureJF

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The New Forrest by Hotatio Smith was published 1829-01-01In 1829, the New Forrest was published and was the last of Smith’s novels. He was most remembered for his literature competition with language and sonnets with Percy ShellyPrintCultureJF

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Thomas Carlyle1816-01-01Thomas Carlyle decides to quit ministry school and becomes a full time teacher but later moves closer to Edinburgh to be closer to his friends. This change most likely altered his future and shaped him into the idealist he is known for today. Shows that during the time the fascination of reform and the quest for knowledge.http://www.nndb.com/people/020/000084765/thomas-carlyle-1-sized.jpgAuthorLetters/DiariesJP

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John Keats1817-05-10John Keats writes to Leigh Hunt giving insight into his ambition and also to the critics of the time. Talks about the joys of being a poet and how he believes he should be more than other men. Shows the way poets were regarded during the romantic era.AuthorLetters/DiariesJP

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Habeas Corpus Suspended1817-01-01Habeas Corpus is suspended in England. The cartoon shows the general feeling of the suspension. The cartoon shows John Bull, who has been imprisoned and has paid his penance, but the lords do not want to let him be free yet.http://www.sonofthesouth.net/uncle-sam/images/habeas-corpus-suspend.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyJP

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Stethoscope is invented1816-01-01Laennec develops the stethoscope which gives futher advances in the mdeical field and allows the user to hear different sounds produced from within the body.Culture/Science/Society JP

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Advances in Astronomy1816-03-04A letter from Carl Friedrich Gauss shows the advances in science and astronomy and man's overall pursuit to find out what is in the universe.OtherLetters/DiariesJP

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Crime in America1817-01-31Gibbons' letter gives insight into crime and the problems with banking in early America from being a new nation. It also gives insight into common fears with giving money over to banks.http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/cdm4/remain_viewer.php?DMTHUMB=1&searchletters=1817;0;0;0&ptr=931&CISOSTART=11OtherLetters/DiariesJP

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The Frankenstein Summer1816-01-01Lord Byron and Claire Clairmont are visited by Mary Shelly and her husband who exchange stories to keep themselves entertained. Frankenstein is born during this exchange of story telling.OverviewJP

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Asiatic Journal1816-01-01The Asiatic Journal is founded and printed for British India. The journal gives accounts of not only literature from the general area but also contains furloughs, deaths, births, and records of arrival and departure, giving insight to what it was like in a British colony.http://www.google.com/books?id=KxAoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PP5&dq=the+asiatic+journal+1816#v=onepage&q=the%20asiatic%20journal%201816&f=falsePeriodical/EphemeralJP

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The Black Dwarf1817-01-01The Black Dwarf is published by Thomas Jonathan Wooler. It is a parody/satirical journal about class reform. Helped give the lower class a sense of literary sophistication.Periodical/EphemeralJP

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Robert Adams1816-01-01The narrative of Robert Adams is published and tells of his capture at the hands of Arabs in Africa. Gives insight to Africa with maps and to the Arabian people.PrimaryMaterialsJP

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England's Foreign Relations1817-01-01England's Empire grew and insight is given into the foreign relations with China as well as the way the English Viewed the Chinese culture and it's people.PrimaryMaterialsJP

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Artistic Bindings1816-01-01Joseph Zaehnsdorf is born. His work later leads to artistic book bindings which gives the novel a greater aesthetic value to the owner/reader.http://scholar.library.miami.edu/bound/graphics/img39mr.jpgPrintCultureJP

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Columbian Press1817-01-01The Columbian Press is brought to England by George Clymer which is made of iron and makes less errors than the wood press. It made smaller printing companies able to be competitive with larger printing companies.PrintCultureJP

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Jane Austen dies1817-07-18Jane Austen dies on July 18, 1817. Her novels were all published anonymously and she is later revealed as the author by her brother Henry, and her fame is spread.http://www.english.upenn.edu/Projects/knarf/Gifs/austen.gifJP

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William Godwin1782-01-01 Godwin converts to Socinianism. The belief that Jesus is a man and the Trinity does not exist. No surprise as Godwin was a disciple of Rousseau. In 1783, he publishes <em>Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Its Influence on Morals and Happiness</em> establishing him as the father of anarchy.AuthorLetters/Diarieskag

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Personal Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft1783-01-01Spring through winter 1783 Mary Wollstonecraft communicates through letters to family and girlfriends. She writes that she is deeply saddened over the welfare of her sister who is pregnant and in marital distress. Mary reflects on marriage and her own personal relationships. AuthorLetters/Diarieskag

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First Hot Air Ballon1782-01-01Montgolfier brothers invent the hot air balloon. First up in the paper craft were a sheep, duck and rooster. On November 21, 1783, the first humans flew twenty minutes. Though the physics was not entirely understood, it was a magnificent event in a time of innovation, industry and new technologyhttp://z.about.com/d/inventors/1/5/0/U/Montgolfier_Balloon.jpgCulture/Science/Societykag

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Ladies' Fashion1783-01-01Women began to look at the softer fabrics of their under garments as outer wear reflecting stylistic changes that suggested a natural and softer silhouette. Natural tones in the color palette suggested the “natural” or “naked look.” Rebellious fashion mirrored the rapidly changing political and social structures of the 1780’s. http://www.nga.gov/image/a00054/a00054cc.jpg Culture/Science/Societykag

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Elizabeth Inchbald1782-01-01Elizabeth Inchbald was a successful playwright and novelist. She kept daily diaries of her activities and lists that included an account of cash and purchases for the day. Her first production went to the stage in 1784, titled <em>A Mogul Tale</em>. http://www.chawton.org/library/images/Inchbald.jpgOtherLetters/Diarieskag

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Charlotte Smith Letters1783-12-01Benjamin Smith, husband to Charlotte Smith, is imprisoned for debt in December 1783. The event allows Charlotte to begin writing again. She had near given up writing all but a few fragments of letters because her personal life was in shambles. Her first publication—<em>Elegiac Sonnets</em> (1784). OtherLetters/Diarieskag

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London Debating Societies1782-01-01Debate clubs of the 1780’s transformed casual coffeehouse conversation into a profit making business. Public debates ran as advertisements in local papers with responses printed a week later. Men and women discussed: politics, religion, social and moral values until the government suppressed free speech and public assembly in 1799. Overviewkag

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Surrey Church1783-01-01The Surrey Church in London opened as a Methodist and Congregational church that sought to welcome all denominations. It was a round church that “prevented the devil from hiding in the corners.http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:fqCPGMXCvMuJsM:http://www.heatons-of-tisbury.co.uk/Images/londonoutskirts/surrych.jpgOverviewkag

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<em>European Magazine</em>1782-01-01The first publication of the <em>European Magazine</em> was published in January 1782. The magazine was non-partisan though committed to King, Church and Country and provided a growing voice of free speech through its letters and articles submitted by literary figures and its readership. Notable contributors included writer Samuel Johnson. Periodical/Ephemeralkag

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<em>The English Review</em>1783-01-01Gilbert Stuart, a writer and critique, promotes the beginnings of <em>The English Review</em> to complete with the <em>Monthly Review</em> and the <em>Critical Review</em>. The magazine would promote a non-partisan voice. Periodical/Ephemeralkag

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New Botanical Discovery1782-01-01
Listed in James Sowerby’s book <em>English Botany</em>, the herbaceous plant, the Yellow Bird’s Nest was discovered in 1783 by Mrs. Hannah Kett at Stoke near Norwich. The book contains Sowerby’s artwork and made him the most celebrated botanical artist in England.
http://www.finerareprints.com/botanical/sowerby-botany/14948.jpgPrimaryMaterialskag

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John Philip Kemble1783-01-01John Philip Kemble (b. 1759, d. 1823) was a famous actor of his era. On September 30, he made his first appearance at the Theatre Royal on Drury Lane in London as Hamlet. He maintained a distinguished career until he retired in 1817. http://static.squidoo.com/resize/squidoo_images/-1/draft_lens2081071module13515719photo_1233138326Thomas-Lawrence-English_actor_John_Philip_Kemble_Hamlet.jpgPrimaryMaterialskag

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Cylinder Printing Machine1782-03-29John Dickinson was born. He became the inventor of the cylinder printing machine patented in 1809. Paper could be made easily accessible in larger quantities and in various sizes.http://www.paperindustryweb.com/histimages/cylmach.gif PrintCulturekag

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Children's Poem1783-01-01
Throughout the 18th and 19th century recycled rags were made into paper. This was a popular children’s poem.

<p>Rags make paper, <br>
Paper makes money, <br>
Money makes banks,<br>
Loans makes beggars,<br>
Beggars make rags.</p>

<p>Anon. circa 18th c. </p>
PrintCulturekag

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Beethoven performs at Vienna 1800-04-02Beethoven's first performance of his First Symphony, Op. 21and Septet, Op. 20 before an audience in Vienna.Culture/Science/Socierykjy

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Schelling's <em>System of Transcendental Idealism</em>1800Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling publishes his <em>System of Transcendental Idealism</em>. Overviewkjy

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Charles Stanhope's Printing Press18001814With Charles Stanhope's redesigned printing press, constructed entirely from cast-iron, printers can create up to 250 copied pages per hour.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Iserlohn-Druckpresse1-Bubo.JPGPrintCulturekjy

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Schiller's <em>The Armenian</em>1800Schiller's <em>The Armenian; Or, The Ghost-Seer. A History of Fact</em> is translated into English by W. Render. Although the book's title is quite ordinary, it is the subtitle that is interesting; it reveals an aspect of the mind of the romantic, namely, the imagery of devilry, e.g., ghosts and the ghost-seer.PrintCulturekjy

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Coleridge rates Blake1818Samuel Taylor Coleridge <a href="http://etext.virginia.edu/stc/Coleridge/letters/Tulk_Thurs_1818.html">writes</a> to Charles Tulk, rating his enjoyment of William Blake's <em>Songs of Innocence and Experience.</em> "The Little Black Boy" seemed to be his favorite, as he rated it with four stars several times over.AuthorLetters/DiariesKMC

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Keats writes to George and Georgiana Keats1819-09John Keats <a href="http://englishhistory.net/keats/letters/georgekeatsseptember1819.html">writes a letter over a ten-day span</a> to his brother George and sister-in-law Georgiana. The contents of the letter, which included a first draft of "The Eve of St. Mark," reveal much about the poet, his inspirations, and his personality.AuthorLetters/DiariesKMC

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"Exquisite Dandies" by Isaac Robert Cruikshank1818-12-08An illustration by Isaac Robert Cruikshank shows two Regency men in a powder room getting dressed in outlandishly feminine garments. It is an interesting commentary on how "dandies" were viewed by other members of society.http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v601/BohemianPeanut/3b48506r.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyKMC

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"The Radical's Arms" by George Cruikshank1819-11This is a political cartoon (possibly satire, but as it is without context, the intent is unclear) showing the face of revolution. The caricatures of two slovenly people hold liquor bottles, stand next to a guillotine, and stand atop the Bible and the Magna Carta. http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v601/BohemianPeanut/3b48448r.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyKMC

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Percy Shelley asks for money1819-08-25Percy Bysshe Shelley <a href="http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/cdm4/remain_viewer.php?DMTHUMB=1&searchletters=percy%20shelley;0;4;0&ptr=225&CISOSTART=1">writes</a> to a Messrs. Brookes in London, asking for 100 pounds to be forwarded to him in Livorno, Italy. The letter is a simple yet interesting peek into the everyday life of a literary legend.OtherLetters/DiariesKMC

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A flourishing year for the Romantics1818-01-011818 sees the publication of Shelley’s <em>Frankenstein</em>, Keats’ <em>Endymion</em> (Keats also meets Fanny Brawne, his future fiancee this year), Lord Byron’s <em>Childe Harold, Canto IV</em>, and the posthumous release of Austen’s <em>Northanger Abbey</em> and <em>Persuasion</em>. Thomas Bowdler publishes a heavily edited version of Shakespeare’s plays called <em>The Family Shakespeare</em>, thus giving way to the term “to bowdlerize.” On July 30, Emily Bronte (<em>Wuthering Heights</em>) is born. Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams, dies on October 28.OverviewKMC

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Royal births1819-01-01The future Queen Victoria is born on May 24, 1819 in Kensington Palace in London. Her future husband, Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel (or more simply, Prince Albert) is born on August 26 in Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v601/BohemianPeanut/462px-Queen_Victoria_Albert_1854JPG.jpgOverviewKMC

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<em>Lamentation</em>1818-09-23An anonymous <a href="http://bodley24.bodley.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/acwwweng/ballads/image.pl?ref=Harding+B+30(8)&id=11168.gif&seq=1&size=1"> poem,</a> lamenting the deaths of workers in a warehouse explosion in Nottingham and the plight of their widows and children, is published by T. Bloomer in Birmingham.Periodical/EphemeralKMC

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<em>Paul and Virginia</em>1819The chapbook <a href="http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Pages/viewtext.php?s=search&tid=217&route=searchresults.php&advanced=1&select1=6&contains1=contains&daterange1=starts&numrange1=contains&year1=1819&andor1=and&daterange2=contains&numrange2=contains&andor2=and&daterange3=contains&numrange3=contains&andor3=and&daterange4=contains&numrange4=contains&andor4=and&s=browse#"><em>Paul and Virginia</em></a>, by an unknown author, is published by Dean & Munday. The most fascinating thing about the chapbook is the list of other titles available through the publisher, giving the modern individual an idea what types of literature would be available to the average literate person.Periodical/EphemeralKMC

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<em>The Maid of Killarney</em> by Patrick Bronte1818Patrick Bronte, father of Charlotte, Emily, and Anne, publishes his second romance, entitled <em>The Maid of Killarney; or Albion and Flora: A Modern Tale; In Which are Interwoven Some Cursory Remarks on Religion and Politics.</em>PrintCultureKMC

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Christopher Sholes is born1819-02-14Christopher Sholes, the inventor of the first commercially successful typewriter and of the QWERTY keyboard layout, is born in Mooresburg, Pennsylvania.http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v601/BohemianPeanut/530px-Sholes_typewriter.jpgPrintCultureKMC

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Sir. Walter Scott1814-01-06On January 6, 1814 Sir. Walter Scott writes to John Murray. In the letter Scott writes of literary reviews of books he has read. At the end of the letter he asks Murray if he knows if Lord Byron is in town, because he had just finished a book of his and wanted to acknowledge its author.AuthorLetters/DiariesMWC

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Practical steam locomotive1814-01-01George Stephenson constructs the first practical steam locomotive. With industrialization on its way, a more practical steam locomotive as means of travel cut down transportation time. Especially with steam-operated press, now literature could travel further and faster.Culture/Science/SocietyMWC

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Miner's safety lamp1815-01-01With the invention of the steam engine and locomotive, coal mining became job for many citizens. Humphry Davy invents a miner’s safety lamp for better visibility in the dark mines. His invention also prevents explosions of the gas in the mines.Culture/Science/SocietyMWC

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1814-11-30Lehigh University archives have a Samuel Taylor Coleridge letter dated November 30, 1814. The letter is thought to have been written to Dorothy Wordsworth, sister of William Wordsworth. Coleridge was friend of both brother and sister. Coleridge was a well-known author, of poetry, of the time as was Wordsworth.OtherLetters/DiariesMWC

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P.B. Shelley and Mary Godwin elope.1814-07-28On July 28, 1814 P.B Shelley and Mary Godwin (Shelley) eloped. Mary Godwin, daughter of William Godwin, married Shelley after spending much time with him. Her father and Shelley were very close friends at the time. All three were to become influential in literary romanticism. OverviewMWC

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Battle of Waterloo1815-06-18On June 18, 1815 the french and allied forces fought in the Battle of Waterloo. A ten-hour battle in Waterloo, Belgium. Allies defeat the French, and ends Napoleon’s attempts to regain his throne in France and ultimately leads to his exile.OverviewMWC

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Ballad Sheets1815-01-01After the War ended in 1815 street carts of periodical started selling more poetry and song ballads to the people. Topics of the “ballad sheets” were varied which made it easy for anyone to relate. There are no prices found on many which could lead on to believe that since the economy was hurting after the war, these pieces of art were free. Anonymous authors to <em>Sheep Shearing</em> and <em>Nobody coming to Marry me.</em>Periodical/EphemeralMWC

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<em>The History of the Lives and Actions...</em>1814-01-01Captain Charles Johnson publishes the new edition of stories about common heroes titled, <em>The History of the Lives and Actions of the most famous Highwaymen, Street-Robbers, &c. &c. &c. to which is added, a genuine account of the voyages and plunders of the most noted Pirates.</em> Included the tales of Sir. John Falstaff and the well-known Robin Hood. The advertisement of the book explained that the book was “long esteemed the only authentic history of men.”PrimaryMaterialsMWC

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<em>The Consair</em>1815-01-01George Gordon “Lord Byron” writes and publishes The Corsair. The third of his six volume series called the Turkish Tales. Ten thousand copies were pre-ordered. Lara the forth of the series was published later the same year.PrintCultureMWC

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Byron's angry letter to Hunt1822-10-24On 24 October 1822, Lord Byron writes an angry letter to John Murray who neglected to forward the preface of Byron's <em>The Vision of Judgment </em> to publisher Leigh Hunt.
Byron warns Murray that they will both be held responsible should controversy arise from publication of the poem without the preface.
AuthorLetters/DiariesRM

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Mary Shelley watches <em>Presumption</em>1823-09-09On 9 September 1823, Mary Shelley writes to Leigh Hunt describing the theatrical adaptation of <em>Frankenstein</em>. Shelley was impressed by the portrayal of the creature: "…in the list of <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=KdgPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA181&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U3oLtvfGLYF9jluzPY0GR6C9u8TBA&ci=41%2C133%2C396%2C361&edge=0">dramatis personae</a>, came '___, by Mr. T. Cooke.' This nameless mode of naming the unnameable is rather good"AuthorLetters/DiariesRM

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<em>Another Piece of Presumption</em>1823-10-01In October of 1823 a parody of <em>Presumption</em>, called <a href="http://www.emich.edu/public/english/adelphi_calendar/m23s.htm#Label038"><em>Another Piece of Presumption</em></a>, is performed at the Adelphi Theater in London. The creature of the play "bears the head of a parish scholar and is consequently a linguist, runs about with a dictionary in his hand for the explanation of new terms" Culture/Science/SocietyRM

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<em>Monstrosities of 1822</em>1822-01-01In October of 1822, George Cruikshank released the picture entitled <em>Monstrosities of 1822</em>. The picture is a satire of the ridiculously lavish clothing considered fashionable at the time. http://198.64.130.61/janeinfo/1822mnst.jpgCulture/Science/Society RM

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Lady Caroline Lamb's letters1823-01-01In 1823, Lady Caroline Lamb writes a series of letters urging friends to recommend her new novel, <em>Ada Reis</em>, to others. She complains: "everybody wishes to, run down and suppress the vital spark of genius I have" (190). Lamb's complaint was common for women writers who often were not taken seriously. OtherLetters/DiariesRM

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Letter from Charles Brown1822-12-20On 20 December 1822, Charles Brown writes to friend Joseph Severn. <a href= "http://www.rc.umd.edu/editions/brownsevern/letters/20dec1822.html">The letter</a> portrays the typical life for a member of the Romantic literary circle. Brown writes of the pleasures of reading, writing, enjoying picturesque scenes and eating delicious foods. OtherLetters/Diaries RM

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Percy Shelley dies1822-07-08Percy Bysshe Shelley drowns during a voyage to Pisa on 8 July 1822. Percy was a significant author of the Romantic Movement and his death affects not only his wife, Mary Shelly, but also fellow writers such as Lord Byron and John Hunt. Byron and Hunt move to Genoa with Mary after Percy's death.OverviewRM

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Byron joins the Greek Revolution1823-07-01In July of 1823, Byron travels to Greece to take part in the War for Greek Independence, providing funding for the Greek army. His participation in the war highlights the celebrity status that esteemed authors were now attainingOverviewRM

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Publication of <em>The Liberal</em>1822-10-15On 15 October 1822 Leigh Hunt, Percy Shelley and Lord Byron begin publication of their periodical, <em>The Liberal</em>. The first issue of the periodical features Byron's poem <a href= "http://books.google.com/books?id=zUEFAAAAYAAJ&dq=the%20liberal&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=1&as_miny_is=1822&as_maxm_is=12&as_maxy_is=1822&as_brr=0&pg=PR13#v=onepage&q=vision%20&f=false"><em>The Vision of Judgment</em></a>. The poem creates controversy for Hunt and Byron, suggesting that authors and publishers are now held responsible for their words. Periodical/Ephemeral RM

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Review of <em>Presumption</em>1823-09-01<a href= "http://books.google.com/books?id=o9gYAAAAMAAJ&dq=presumption%20hiss&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=1&as_miny_is=1823&as_maxm_is=12&as_maxy_is=1823&as_brr=0&pg=PA322#v=onepage&q=presumption%20hiss&f=false">An article in the October 1823 edition of<em>The London Magazine</em></a> features a review of the performance of <em>Presumption</em>, a theater adaptation of <em>Frankenstein</em>. The article describes an eager audience who "crowd to it, hiss it, hail it, shudder at it, loath it, dream of it, and come again to it," accentuating the popularity of Shelley's novel. Periodical/Ephemeral RM

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Byron writes of health concerns1823-12-27On 27 December 1823, Lord Byron writes to Thomas Moore from Greece. Byron is assisting the Greek revolutionary army and is becoming concerned about his health. He asks Moore, if anything should happen, "to remember me in your 'smiles and wine'" Byron will die in Greece a few months later.PrimaryMaterialsRM

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<em>Two Visions</em> published1822-01-01<em>Two Visions or Byron V Southey</em> is published in 1822 by William Dugdale. The manuscript combines Southey's poem <em>The Vision of Judgment</em> and Byron's parody of the same name, giving readers a chance to compare the poems side by side. PrimaryMaterials RM

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<em>Graham Hamilton</em> published1822-10-01Lady Caroline Lamb publishes her second novel, <em>Graham Hamilton</em>, in October 1822. <a href= "http://www.british-fiction.cf.ac.uk/reviews/grah22-52.html"><em>The Monthly Review</em></a> cites Lamb's "rank and connections...talents and a certain degree of excentricity" as giving her both literary recognition and celebrity status. The review highlights the relationship between print culture and the budding fad of celebrity-watching. PrintCultureRM

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Second edition of <em>Frankenstein</em>1823-01-01The second edition of Mary Shelley's <em>Frankenstein</em> is published in 1823. The novel is published in two volumes and the inside cover reads "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." This addition is significant because it gives authorship officially to Mary Shelley rather than Percy Shelley.PrintCultureRM

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Jane Austen writes to her sister 1804-04-09 In a letter to her sister, Jane Austen expresses her dislike of &#8220;the ignorant class of school mistresses.&#8221; In Austen&#8217;s time, traditional subordination of women continued as girls learned how to dance and do needlework at school rather than focusing on academic skills. AuthorLetters/DiariesRS

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Jane Austen writes to her brother1805-01-21Jane Austen writes a letter to her brother describing their father&#8217;s sudden and unexpected death despite the doctor&#8217;s use of &#8220;cupping.&#8221; Cupping was a common medical practice believed to help the human body get rid of unnecessary fluids though bloodletting; it is a sign of the scientific limitations of the time. AuthorLetters/DiariesRS

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Spencers become fashionable1804-07-01<em>Ladies Monthly Museum</em> features sketches of women wearing spencers: jackets designed after men&#8217;s riding jackets. Women would often freeze to death in their lightweight, fashionable, feminine clothes; this new fashion statement served as a small but significant step in the women&#8217;s rights movement.http://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/images/1804-01.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyRS

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Women's evening attire1805-01-01This dress is an example of fashionable evening attire for women in England in 1805. The dress is a modest cut made out of cotton and embroidered with silver thread. http://dept.kent.edu/museum/costume/bonc/3timesearch/tsnineteenth/1800-1829/1983.1.27F.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyRS

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Napoleon becomes Emperor1804-05-18Napoleon is officially crowned Emperor of FranceOverviewRS

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Battle of Trafalgar1805-10-21The British Royal Navy defeats both the French and Spanish fleets in the Battle of Trafalgar. This battle is considered "the last great battle of the age of sail." OverviewRS

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Battle of Austerlitz1805-12-02Napoleon claims victory against Russian and Austrian forces in the Battle of Austerlitz.OverviewRS

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Coronation of Napoleon as depicted by David1804-12-02Napoleon's coronation takes place, as is depicted in this famous portrait by Jacques Louis Davidhttp://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/cgi-bin/getimage.exe?CISOROOT=/letters&DMSCALE=100&DMWIDTH=5000&DMHEIGHT=5000&CISOPTR=1970Periodical/EphemeralRS

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Murray noted in Monthly Review1804-12-01J. London Murray&#8217;s &#8220;The London Dissector or a Compendium of Practical Anatomy containing a Description of the Muscles Vessels Nerves and Viscera of the human Body as they appeared on Dissection with Directions for their Demonstrations&#8221; is noted in the medical section of the September to December edition of the Monthly Review, showing the scientific movement of the Romantic PeriodPeriodical/EphemeralRS

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Sarah Wilkinson publishes chapter book1805-01-01Sarah Wilkinson publishes her chapter book <a href="http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Pages/viewimage.php?img=1359&famNum=3"><em>The White Cottage of the Valley; or the Mysterious Husband: An Original, Interesting Romance</em></a>. Short novels like this were common in the nineteenth century. They were written by women and meant to provide entertainment for the common or lower-class. Periodical/EphemeralRS

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Rear-Admiral Cochrane writes to Admiral Cornwallis 1804-10-24Almost exactly a year before the naval battle at Trafalgar, Rear-Admiral Cochrane writes to Admiral Cornwallis while he is aboard The Northumberland, &#8220;The Spanish line of battle ships are in a state so as to be ready in a few days. The baking of biscuit goes on; all their ovens are at work . . . Parties continue to arrive from France.&#8221; PrimaryMaterialsRS

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Great Britian's declaration to Spain1805-01-01In an effort to maintain good relations with Spain, Great Britain declares that, &#8220;His Majesty would indeed be most happy to discover in the council of Spain a reviving sense of those ancient feelings and honourable propensities … which, in better times have marked the conduct of its government.&#8221;PrimaryMaterialsRS

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Color printing1804-01-01George Baxter makes a momentous contribution to art and literature when he patents the letterpress process for color printingPrintCultureRS

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Godwin's <em>Fleetwood</em> is published and reviewed1805-02-14William Godwin's <e>Fleetwood: or, the New Man of Feeling</em> is published. In an 1805 review in <em>Flowers of Literature</em>, it is said that Fleetwood makes readers, "Lay down the book with the conviction, that no such a being ever existed" because he is "Contradictory to common sense." This shows the nineteenth century's literary struggle to mix reason with imagination.PrintCultureRS

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a letter from Mary Shelly wrote to Contessa Teresa Guiccioli1824-05-15"And I saw him for the last time! I will never again see the most beautiful of all men, that glorious creature who was the pride of all the world; never again will I hear his voice or read his new poetry, the daughter of his incomparable genius."AuthorLetters/DiariesTJ

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A letter from Samuel Taylor Coleridge1825-04-08In this letter, Taylor blames a biography of Lord Byron for causing him trouble. Even after death, Byron creates controversy for people.http://i210.photobucket.com/albums/bb158/splat_phastkyl/Engl%20149/STCLetter.jpgAuthorLetters/DiariesTJ

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Satirical Comics1824-01-01One of the more difficult things to find in the research is that scathing barb of social commentary, <a href="http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/hollin/com.html">satirical cartoons.</a> The one pictured shows a common person and their work horse bucking a cartload of the fashionably dressed.http://i210.photobucket.com/albums/bb158/splat_phastkyl/Engl%20149/Satire.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyTJ

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Fashion1825-01-01An image of 1825 fashion from <em><a href="http://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/lm/LM1825.html"The Lady's Magazine</a>, or Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex, Appropriated solely to their Use and Amusement</em>, 1825. This image offers an idea of the elegance and full coverage that was being pushed on women in the 19th century.http://i210.photobucket.com/albums/bb158/splat_phastkyl/Engl%20149/Fashion.jpgCulture/Science/SocietyTJ

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Letter to Thomas Allan, Edinburgh fr. Humphry Davy.1824-04-10<a href="http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/cdm4/remain_viewer.php?DMTHUMB=1&searchletters=;0;4;0&ptr=1292&CISOSTART=101">Davy describes an experiment he conducted in London involving black spots which contained acid; he is currently working on experiments with the preservation of copper. One of the first professional scientists, Davy studied many areas of natural history including chemistry, agriculture, and electricity.</a>OtherLetters/DiariesTJ

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Manuscript: Preface to Lionel Lincoln / [James Fenimore Cooper].1825-01-01<a href="http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/cdm4/remain_viewer.php?DMTHUMB=1&searchletters=;0;4;0&ptr=1701&CISOSTART=61">Cooper speculates in the Preface that "Perhaps there is no other country where history is so little adapted to poetical illustration than the United States." Published in 1825, Lionel Lincoln was not warmly received by critics; it dealt with Boston in the days of the early Revolution, focusing on the battle at Bunker Hill. </a>OtherLetters/DiariesTJ

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Byron dies1824-04-19Byron dies in Missolonghi, Greece; his memoirs are burned to avoid scandal. Byron joined the Grecian war of liberation in 1824. Though he recovered from a life threatening epileptic fit, he caught a severe chill when sailing in early April. Afterwards, rheumatic fever set in and he died on April 19th.OverviewTJ

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Fuseli Dies1825-04-16April 16, 1825 Henry Fuseli Dies (1741-1825) Fuseli was one of the great inspirations for Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelly’s mother. It’s interesting to see how the dates line up. Fuseli dies one year after Byron, almost to the day.OverviewTJ

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Samuel Taylor Colridge1824-01-01Samuel Taylor Coleridge's rank in the Royal Society of Literature.http://i210.photobucket.com/albums/bb158/splat_phastkyl/Engl%20149/SCTRankcopy.gifPeriodical/EphemeralTJ

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<em>Conversations With Lord Byron</em>1825-01-01<em>Conversations with Lord Byron</em>, published after his death. In one part, Byron talks about Lewis's The Monk.http://i210.photobucket.com/albums/bb158/splat_phastkyl/Engl%20149/ByronMonk-1copy.gifPeriodical/EphemeralTJ

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<em>The History of English Poetry...</em>1824-01-01This text shows that during the early part of the 19th century, people were interested in the origins of their language and their arts. Whether or not the information is correct doesn’t matter for the point that it was researched, documented, and published for public distribution.http://i210.photobucket.com/albums/bb158/splat_phastkyl/Engl%20149/HistEnglPoetry.jpgPrimaryMaterialsTJ

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<em>The Report of the Commissioners concerning charities...em>1825-01-01Charity was a growing topic of social propriety in the Victorian era. The book details gifts spending, but I believe that the dedication was what was most important.http://i210.photobucket.com/albums/bb158/splat_phastkyl/Engl%20149/Charities.jpgPrimaryMaterialsTJ

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Atheneum Club in London founded1824-01-01<a href="http://www.athenaeumclub.co.uk/">The Athenaeum Club</a> began as a traditional gentlemen's club that was based on education and achievement. Due to this focus, the club opened the doors to a larger number gentleman of common birth. Here, gentlemen could discuss new literary ideas, debate scientific theories and possibly find patrons for important work.PrintCultureTJ

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Börsenverein der Deutsche Buchhandlung founded1825-01-01Philipp Erasmus Reich was known in the 18th century as “the prince of the German book trade.” He could be said to have invented the net price principle and the idea of a booksellers’ association (1765), which in 1825 became the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler, a unique organization of publishers, wholesalers, and retailers.PrintCultureTJ