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YearDateEventCountryCityTheater TypeDuration of ExhibitionNotesSourceSource 2Source 3Source 4PhotosDate AddedInitials

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Mark Family Moves to RIchmond,VA

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18647/27/1864Mitchel Henry Mark BornUSARichmond, VASometimes reported as being born in 1868http://aronoff.com/family/i0020177.htm

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1866First transatlantic telegraph cable laid

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1869?Mark Family moves to Greensboro, SCUSAGreensboro, SCMoe Mark's grandson. Mark Cohn

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18727/10/1872Moses "Moe" Mark BornUSAGreensboro, SChttp://aronoff.com/family/i0020177.htm

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1877Mitchel Mark moves to NYC, starts in hat businessUSANew York, NYMoving Picture World June 15, 1916 p 391

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18781/24/1878Edison Speaking Phonograph Company was establishedhttp://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bledisondiscphpgraph.htm

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1878February 19, 1878.Edison issued patent on phonographUSANew Jersey

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c1880???Mark moves to Buffalo. Starts hat business at 73-77 Seneca StreetUSABuffalo, NYMoving Picture World June 15, 1916 p 391

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1884Eastman begins to manufacture film in Rochester, NYUSARochester, NY

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1887Edison begins work on Kinetoscope / Phonograph combination device (for images with sound)USA

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1894Newest Transatlantic Telegraph cable laidUS / Europe

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1894Charles Pathe opens Gramophone Shop / FactoryFRANCE

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1894Mark opens Edisonia Phonograph Parlors at 378 Main Street under license to EdisonUSABuffalo, NYStorefront ParlorTIme Mag obit and other sources

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18955/6/1895Ellicott Square building construction beginsUSABuffalo, NYhttp://www.buffaloah.com/a/main/295/hist/index.html

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1895November 1895X-Ray Discovered

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1895Kinetoscope installed in Phonograph ParlorUSABuffalo, NY

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18953/22/1895Lumiere's Project Film at Society for the Encouragement of National Industry in ParisFRANCEParis, France

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1895 or 1896Mitchel Mark contacts Lumiere or Pathe and arranges use of their filmsc

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18961/23/1896Roentgen gives first public demonstration of X-Ray MachineUSA

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18963/9/1896Mar 9 - Lumière Cinématographe begins engagement at Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, LondonUKLondon, UKExhibition at a theaterhttp://www.victorian-cinema.net/resources.htm

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18964/23/1896Apr 23 - Edison Vitascope shownto the public at Koster & Bial's Music Hall, New YorkUSANew York, NYExhibition at a theater1 night

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1896Edison sells approximately 40 Vitascopes to various entrepeneursUSA

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18965/14/1896May 14 - Tsar Nicholas II of Russia crowned in Moscow, in the first coronation ever recorded in film by Lumiere / Pathe. May 14 - Doublier and Moisson film the coronation of Tsar Nikolas II for Lumière and three days (5/17/1886) later Doublier gives Russia's first projected film show, in St PetersburgRUSSIAMoscow / St. Petersburgone day

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1896May?New Orleans Vitascope screeningsUSANew Orleans, LAStorefront Conversionweeks

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1896May?Mark Brothers purchase VitascopeUSABuffalo, NY

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18965/30/1896Ellicott Square Building CompletedUSABuffalo, NYhttp://www.buffaloah.com/a/main/295/hist/index.html

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1896May or June?Mark Brothers begin process which result in the following actions of indeterminate length being started: 1) Negotiation and securing of space on ground floor and basement of Ellicott Square, 2) Hiring of Architect to design Vitascope Theater, 3) Drawing up of plans for Vitascope Theater, 4) Construction of actual theater and of Edisonia Hall entrance way.USABuffalo, NYThis is surmised from the steps that would have to be taken to construct a threater. Assume that it was Burnham's firm that was hired, it would have taken them several weeks (but probably a month or more) to draw up plans, then it would have taken a month or more to actually construct the theater. This would account for the bulk of the time (18 weeks total) between, say, June 1, 1896 when Ellicott Square opened, and October 18, 1896 when the Vitascope Theater opened.E.S. conjecture

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18966/8/1896Monday. Vitascope demonstrated in Buffalo, NY at Buffalo Public Library and opened to general public. Buffalo was THIRD CITY (after NY and Philadelphia) to have such a demonstration). (although it might have been FOURTH if you include New Orleans)USABuffalo.NYPublic Library Reading Roomseveral days"First Vitascope, invented by Thomas A. Edison, shown here for first time." Buffalo Courier June 8, 1896: 11-2.BECHS Chris Hawley, Ranjit Sandhu Manuscript

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18966/29/1896First US Lumiere Cinematographe Screening at Keith's Union Square Theatre, NY 22 weeksUSANew York, NYExhibition at a theater22 weeks

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18967/28/1896Four weeks after the New York premiere, a second cinématographe reached the United States and replaced the vitascope at Keith’s Bijou Theater in Philadelphia. - 19 weeksUSAPhiladelphia, PAExhibition at a theater19 weekshttp://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/1946/The-Lumi-re-Cin-matographe-Reaches-America.html

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18968/10/1896the third cinématographe to reach the United States replaced the vitascopes at Keith’s Boston theater on 10 August - 22 weeksUSABoston, MAExhibition at a theater22 Weekshttp://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/1946/The-Lumi-re-Cin-matographe-Reaches-America.html

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18968/17/1896Lumiere Cinematographe opened in a former post office at 321 Washington Street (now Cadman Plaza--the building long gone) in Brooklyn. This continued until mid-December when it was moved briefly to the American Theatre, at 778 Driggs Avenue in Williamsburgh.USABrooklyn, NYStorefront Parlor16 weeksSource: Craig Morrison

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1896Sept 7, 1896Henry Davis opens Lumiere cinematographe in Pittsburgh for 3 months at his Vaudeville House along with one or more playsUSAPittsburgh, PA12 weeksabove

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18969/28/1896Société Pathé Frères Founded in Paris, France on September 28, 1896FRANCE

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189610/12/1896Oct 12 - Public debut of the Biograph at Hammerstein's Olympic Music HallUSANew York, NYExhibition at a theater1 night

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189610/19/1896Vitascope Hall opens in Buffalo, NY with program of Lumiere Films shown, apparently, with a Vitascope. Located in Ellicott Square. Believed to have remained open for more than 100 weeks.USABuffalo, NYFirst permanent, "designed" theater built only to show movies.approximately 2 years: Ads from 1898 existCalled Vitascope Theater, Vitascope Theatre, Edisonia Hall, The Electric Theater, The Electric Theatre in various articles and advertisements. Films shown on opening night were almost all from Lumiere Brothers. Conjecture: It is believed that they either re-engineered their Vitascope Projector to use Lumiere perforations or they obtained prints made from the Lumiere originals onto Edison perforated stock. This might have been to save money as against whatever Edison was charging. Rudoph Wagner who worked with the Marks may have been the one who did this.

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189611/1/18961 November, when the French company opened the Lumière Agency at 13 East 30th Street in New York City and offered to sell states rights or lease its machinesUSANew York, NY

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1896December 1896Edison crews film Niagara FallsUSANiagara Falls, NYhttp://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?papr:16:./temp/~ammem_Qx5w::

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1897June 1897Buffalo Fire Department in action filmed by Thomas A. Edison, Inc. ; producer, James White along with several other short films of police department etc.USABuffalo, NYEdison sent a camera crew throughout NY state which stopped in Buffalo, probably in June and filmed several short subjects. Most are in the paper print collection at the LoC. According to Paul Spehr this was an arrangement made by Edison with a railway to promote both of them. Copyrights are in July 1897, but they were surely filmed early than that and the filings/deposits not made until Julyhttp://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/papr:@filreq(@field(NUMBER+@band(edmp+0028))+@field(COLLID+edison))6/16/2011ES

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1898?Closing of Vitascope TheaterUSABuffalo, NYThe exact date is not known. It may have been in late 1898 (as 1898 ads exist)Research needs to be done to find the last paid advertisement in a Buffalo, NY newspaper for the Vitascope Theater. We have verified ads from 1897.6/16/2011ES

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1898Empire Theater constructed in Buffalo, NY by MarksUSABuffalo, NYExhibition at a Theater

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1898Vitascope Hall closes sometime in 1898 after nearly 2 years of continuous operationUSABuffalo, NY

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1899?Kinetoscope Show 5 cent admission 14th StreetUSANew York,NYStorefront Parlor

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1899?Siegmund Lubin opens theater at Philadelphia Trade Show Believed to be first non-permanent standalone movie theater constructed from the ground up.USAPhiladelpha, PAStandalone Temporary Theaterhttp://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Siegmund_Lubin

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1900Siegmund Lubin opens "movie theater" at a summer park in Chicago. May have been a "standalone" theater.USAChicago, IllStandalone Temporary Theater????http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Siegmund_Lubin

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1901Pan American Exposition - Siegmund Lubin opens temporary Movie Theater. Believed to be 2nd non-permanent "standalone" movie theater constructed from ground up.USABuffalo, NYStandalone Temporary TheaterProjector is believed to exist in the collection of the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Societyhttp://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Siegmund_Lubin Also.. article in The Buffalo Evening News 1930s which has info about projector.

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1901Pan-American Exposition - Mutoscope Concession run by Mark BrothersUSABuffalo, NYSpecial Exhibit

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1901Edison camera crews film many subjects at Pan-American ExpositionUSABuffalo, NYEarly filmingSome credit these films as being the first "news films" but it depends upon how it is defined.

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1902Pathe acquires Lumiere patentsFRANCE

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1902Pathe opens Exchange in LondonUKLondon

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1902?????Pathe opens Exchange in Buffalo, NY on Franklin StreetUSABuffalo, NYMark brothers purportedly became first exclusive distributors of Pathe features in USA

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1902???Automatic Vaudeville Company opened by Mark and partnersUSANew York, NYStorefront ParlorUnion Square South? Marcus Loew, Adolph Zukor were partners

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1902??Mark opens People's Arcade, 263 Main StreetUSABuffalo, NYStorefront Parlor

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1902 ??Mark opens Edisonia Penny Arcade, 475 Main StreetUSABuffalo, NYStorefront Parlor

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1903In 1903 he showed a first film of fire horses answering an alarm.USAMoe & Mitchel ?TIme Mag obit

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1905Pittsburgh Nickelodeon TheaterUSAPittsburgh, PAStorefront conversionClaimed as beginning of modern movie theater era apparently because of availability of a stream of longer entertainment films. Early film journal founded in Pittsburgh, PA

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1905In 1905, in Lynn, Mass., a colored film of the Oberammergau Passion Play was sensationalUSALynn, MassExhibition at a TheaterMoe & Mitchel ?TIme Mag obit

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1906They opened the Theatre Comique in Scollay Square, Boston in August 1906, the first purpose-built cinema in downtown Boston. Has unique Deep Orchestra Pit: see notesUSABoston, MassFirst purpose built cinema in BostonUnknownMoe & Mitchel. ...boasted an orchestra pit so deep that the musicians couldn't be seen by the audience. Suddenly a picture's musical accompaniment seemed to be coming from nowhere and everywhere at once."http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/20853/commentshttp://cinematreasures.org/theaters/10885Hollywood Rhapsody, Marmorstein, 2000, p 8http://rfi.bostonhistory.org/boston/full/001101.jpg6/16/2011ES

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1907First church organ to be used for the movies installed at Cleveland's Alhambra TheaterUSACleveland, OHFirst Church Organ in Movie TheaterAttributed solely to MitchelHollywood Rhapsody, Marmorstein, 2000, p 87/6/2011ES

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1908February 1908Nicoland Theater, Bronx, NY designed by Thomas Lamb. Considered first purpose built movie theater in NYC.USABronx, NYFirst purpose built, stand-alone movie theater in NYC.1908 -- 1917, demolished 1970sLamb goes on to design Regent and Mark Strandhttp://cinematreasures.org/theater/20040/

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1909Founding of General Film Company - Mitchel involved for some part of the years they were in business (1909-1920)USAEarly Film Distribution Monopoly1909-1920Reference to this in Mitchel Obit.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Film_Company7/6/2011ES

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1910Victoria at 284 West Ferry StreetUSABuffalo, NYTheaterMark Brothers

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1910Academy Theater 247 Main StreetUSABuffalo, NYTheaterMark Brothers

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1910 ?Family Theater (converted from the Buffalo Savings Bank) at 441 Broadway as a combination vaudeville/movie houseUSABuffalo, NYTheaterMark Brothers

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1911 - 1912UnknownThe Strand movie house opened in Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCanadaToronto, OntarioTheater

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19??Mark obtains exclusive rights to "Strand" name for movie Theater in UKUSA / UKBuffalo, NY / LondonIt's known that in a court case, Mark won the exclusive right to name a motion picture theater "The Strand" What is not known is when he obtained that right and how he obtained. The key may be in the court documents relating to the lawsuit. An attempt should be made to find them through, say, NEXUS/LEXUS

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1912Mark-Strand at 355 Main -1200 Seat Movie TheaterUSABuffalo, NYTheaterMark Brothers

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1912rebuilt the 1500-seat Lyric Theater at 449 Broadway as a vaudeville house.USABuffalo, NYTheaterMark Brothers

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1912 ?Regent Theater (still standing) at 1365 MainUSABuffalo, NYTheaterMark Brothers Theater was used in 1950's to test TODD-AO projection and lenses.

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1912 ?New Victoria Theater at 309 West Ferry.USABuffalo, NYTheater

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1914Mark Strand Theater opens: In 1914 the Brothers Mark opened the first million-dollar Broadway cinema palace, the Mark Strand. Impresario of the epochmaking 18-piece orchestra was Samuel Lionel ("Roxy") Rothafel. USANYFirst Movie PalacePartners were purported to be Max and Joe Levinson who may have been involved with Theater Comique in BostonTIme Mag obit

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1914Mark Hires Roxy to manage Strand TheatreUSANY

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19145/8/1914Mark plans to open restaurant on top floor of theaterUSANY, NYMark Strand TheaterRestaurant for working girls. Article tells details of menu, schedule, et al.NY Timeshttp://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F3071FFE3F5C13738DDDA10894DA415B848DF1D3

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191412/8/1914Benefit performance w/ Mary Pickford at StrandUSANY, NYMark Strand Theaterhttp://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030193/1914-12-08/ed-1/seq-4/;words=Strand+Mark?date1=1894&rows=20&searchType=basic&state=&date2=1914&proxtext=mark+strand&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&index=612/10/2011ES

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1914 / 1919Irving Berlin rents space in The Mark Strand for his new music publishing company.USANYCSources have two dates for this event. Berlin had a collaborative publishing company with two partners and later, apparently, his own under his own name. That may account for the confusion.

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191712/31/1917NY State Supreme Court Decision in favor of Mark's ownership of the name "The Strand" against "The Harlem Strand"http://books.google.com/books?id=9447AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA244&dq=mitchel+mark#PPA244,M1

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1917Mark and Tally protest the "excessive" rental fees for Hollywood motion picture production.USANY / LACecil B. DeMille Autobiography. Page...

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19183/20/1918Mitchel Mark dies of infection. Age 53USABuffalo, NYhttp://aronoff.com/family/i0020184.htm#i20184

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1920Date?Another Mark Strand Theater opens at Sheridan Square in NY. Acquired by Loew's circa 1926. Painted by Edward Hopper in 1928 as The Sheridan Theater (Hopper lived nearby). If the date is really 1920, then Moe Mark must have been behind it.USANY, NYMovie Palace Edward Hopper's painting of The Sheridan Theater (which stood in Greenwich Village around 11th Street until the 1970s or so) is REALLY the Mark Strand Theatre opened around 1920 by Mitchel and Moe!http://www.artrepublic.com/prints/9491-the-sheridan-theatre-1928.htmlhttp://www.newarkmuseum.org/museum_default_page.aspx?id=2146http://whitney.org/WatchAndListen/Artists?context=&context_id=&play_id=1977/1/2011ES

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1925Moe Mark acquires 10 Theaters from Robbins Enterprises

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1926By this time, Mark brothers owned minimum of 19 theaters including ones in: Lynn, Mass, Springfield, Mass, 9 Theaters (?) in NY State and 10 Other Theaters. According to Variety, there were 13 theaters named Mark-Strand.USA

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1926In 1926 Moe Mark sold some of his chain of cinema theatres to Stanley Co. of America which merged (1928) with Warner Brothers;USAhttp://www.newarkmuseum.org/museum_default_page.aspx?id=2146

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1929in 1929 Moe sold the rest directly to Harry and Jack Warner.
TIme Mag obit

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1932NovemberMoe Mark, 60, pioneer cinema showman; of a cerebral hemorrhage while en route from a Clifton Springs (N.Y.) sanitarium to his White Plains home; in Utica, N.Y.USAUtica, NY

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200710/19/2008111th Birthday of Vitascope Theater celebrated in Ellicott Square BuildingUSABuffalo, NY5 people attend: Edward Summer, Carl Paladino, Marti Gorman, Cynthia Van Ness, Mark Donnelly. WIVB news reporter turns down interviews!

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2007November 2007Article on Vitascope Theater appears in Buffalo News and Associated Press. Written by Mark SommerUSABuffalo, NY

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200810/18/2008112th Birthday of Vitascope Theater celbrated in Ellicott Square BuildingUSABuffalo, NY55 people attend. Buffalo News (Mark Sommer) covers event. 1st commemorative limited-edition print unveiled and put on sale (Scott Wood)

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200910/18/2009113th Birthday of Vitascope Theater in Ellicott Square. Performance of The Living NickelodeonUSABuffalo, NY50 people attend presentation and performance by Rick Altman as part of 3rd Annual Buffalo International Film Festival. Scott Wood sells signed commemorative posters. Attended by Mary Pat Kelly, Mr. Defau (of "Proud") and other cast members of Proud.

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2010114th Birthday. No Celebration heldUSABuffalo, NYhttp://www.buffalonews.com/entertainment/gusto/article85000.ece

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20107/29/2010Article about Forest Lawn Cemetary mentions Mark

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2011Saturday October 21? 115th Birthday Party Held in Ellicott SquareUSABuffalo, NYabout 40 people attended. Talk by Edward Summer, Karen Colizzi Noonan, NY Movie Theater Corridor announced. Posters sold. Birthday Cake served

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Online Sources

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Mitchel H. Mark

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http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/mark-mitchell-h-tf/

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Moe Mark

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Vitascope Theater (Edisonia Hall)